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A minecart, one method of transportation

Transportation involves the methods by which players move around the world or between dimensions (the Overworld, the Nether and the End).


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This section needs to be updated. 
Please update this section to reflect recent updates or newly available information.
Reason: Add speed for throwing a Trident with Riptide enchantment, speed stats for striders when using boost, and boat statistics for being on land, on slime blocks (which have a different friction value) and honey blocks or other blocks that affect boat speed. Add calculations for how many blocks you need to fall to reach terminal velocity vertically in 1.17 with the increased height limit. Also, walking diagonally is faster

These speeds assume that the form of transportation is not under the effect of the Speed or Slowness status effects if they can be.

Method Conditions Running start effective? Average speed in m/s (blocks per second)[note 1] Average speed in km/h (1000 blocks per hour)[note 1][note 2] Works in the Nether?
Walking Flat terrain No 4.317 m/s 15.54 km/h Yes
Soul Speed 1 No 6.066 m/s 21.84 km/h Yes
Soul Speed 2 No 6.519 m/s 23.47 km/h Yes
Soul Speed 3 No 6.972 m/s 25.1 km/h Yes
Sprinting Flat terrain No 5.612 m/s 20.2 km/h Yes
Soul Speed 1 No 7.885 m/s 28.39 km/h Yes
Soul Speed 2 No 8.475 m/s 30.51 km/h Yes
Soul Speed 3 No 9.064 m/s 32.63 km/h Yes
Sneaking Flat terrain No 1.3 m/s 4.68 km/h Yes
Soul Speed 1 No 1.819 m/s 6.55 km/h Yes
Soul Speed 2 No 1.949 m/s 7.02 km/h Yes
Soul Speed 3 No 2.92 m/s 10.51 km/h Yes
Minecart Powered Track Yes, small 8.0 m/s 28.8 km/h Yes
14 slope track No 7.1 m/s 25.6 km/h Yes
Minecart with Furnace[Java Edition only] No 4.0 m/s 14.4 km/h Yes
Boat[note 3] 14 slope rapids Yes, small 7.3 m/s 26.4 km/h No[note 4]
14 slope rapids No 7.0 m/s 25.2 km/h No[note 4]
Flat ice Flat packed ice Flat frosted ice No 40.0 m/s 144.0 km/h Yes
Flat blue ice No 70.0 m/s 252.0 km/h Yes
Flat water No 8.0 m/s 28.8 km/h No[note 4]
Saddled Strider Flat land, without boost No 1.74 m/s 6.26 km/h Yes
Flat lava surface, without boost No 4.14 m/s 14.9 km/h Yes
Saddled pig Flat terrain No 4.0 m/s 14.4 km/h Yes
Flat terrain, using carrot on a stick Yes 4.19 m/s 15.08 km/h Yes
Horse [note 5] Flat terrain (average horse speed) No 9.49 m/s 34.16 km/h Yes
Flat terrain, fastest possible horse breed No 14.23 m/s 51.22 km/h Yes
Flat terrain No 7.525 m/s 27.125 km/h Yes
Zombie horse
Skeleton horse
Flat terrain No 8.62 m/s 31.03 km/h Yes
Swimming Still water, surface[note 6] No 2.20 m/s 7.92 km/h No[note 4]
Still water, underwater[note 7] No 1.97 m/s 7.09 km/h No[note 4]
Upstream, underwater No 0.39 m/s 1.40 km/h No[note 4]
Downstream, underwater No 1.81 m/s 6.52 km/h No[note 4]
While Diving No 0.39 m/s 1.40 km/h No[note 4]
Downstream, underwater, standing No 1.37 m/s 4.93 km/h No[note 4]
Dolphin's Grace status effect No 8.0 m/s 28.8 km/h No[note 4]
Dolphin's Grace status effect with Depth Strider III No 48.0 m/s 172.8 km/h No[note 4]
Dolphin's Grace status effect with Depth Strider III and Soul Speed III on a layer of Soul Soil underwater [note 8] No 75.0 m/s 270 km/h No[note 4]
Dolphin's Grace status effect with Depth Strider III and Soul Speed III on a layer of Soul Soil underwater, aligned at a +/-45 or +/-135 degree angle, depending on travel direction, and holding forward, left/right (left if -135 or 45, right if 135 or -45), and the sprint key [note 9] No 146.965 m/s 529.074 km/h No[note 4]
Flying (horizontal)[note 10] Creative Mode Yes 11.0 m/s 39.6 km/h Yes
Creative Mode
Yes 22.0 m/s 79.2 km/h Yes
Spectator Mode
Maximum speed
Yes 43.556 m/s 156.8016 km/h Yes
Spectator Mode
Maximum speed
Yes 87.111 m/s 313.5996 km/h Yes
Ender Pearl Thrown 15° above horizontal No ~23.0 m/s ~82.8 km/h Yes
Biggest TNT pearl cannon[note 11] Yes 1,760,000 m/s (1.760 Mm/s) 6,336,000 km/h (6.336 Gm/h) Yes
Elytra[note 12] Gliding at 0° pitch Yes, small 30.0 m/s 108.0 km/h Yes
Continuous rocket boost No 33.5 m/s 120.6 km/h Yes
Gliding at 52° pitch down Yes 67.3 m/s 242.3 km/h Yes
Gliding at 90° pitch down Yes 78.4 m/s 282.2 km/h Only when above bedrock level[note 13]
  1. a b Multiply the value by 8 to get the Overworld equivalent when doing this in the Nether.
  2. Divide by 3 to get kilometres per game day, or by 6 to get kilometres per half-day (from dawn to sunset)
  3. The time taken by a boat to reach maximum speed is 9.4 seconds—the difference in time between a running start and not, is half that, or 4.7 seconds.
  4. a b c d e f g h i j k l m In the Nether, water cannot be placed without the use of commands.
  5. Horses vary in speed. They are the fastest method of land transportation on open but unprepared terrain.
  6. The swimming speeds are not affected by Swiftness potions. The surface speed refers to "skimming" across the top of the water by holding the spacebar.
  7. Underwater refers to any part of the body submerged in water and walking on flat terrain. The Player travels the same speed regardless of if the water is 1 block deep or 2 (in observed cases).
  8. Data based on
  9. Data based on
  10. Flying speed can be varied.
  11. Data based on
  12. Values are faster than those listed if the player has the Slow Falling status effect.
  13. it is technically possible below; however, the size between the roof of the nether and the floor is 124 blocks, meaning that it would take less than 2 seconds to go down. Also, achieving speed requires either using rocket boost, or starting above the roof.


Using potion effects (including beacon effects), walking and sprinting speeds become competitive with other methods of transportation.

Each additional level of Speed allows the player to walk at nearly the sprinting speed of the previous level, and sprinting with Speed II is only slightly slower than a minecart at full speed or a boosted pig. With adequate food and potion supplies, sprinting may be more cost-effective than building high-speed transportation systems.

Effect level Walking speed (m/s) Sprinting speed (m/s)
none 4.317 m/s 5.612 m/s
Speed 5.181 m/s 6.735 m/s
Speed II 6.044 m/s 7.857 m/s


Using the /effect command, extremely high or low speeds become reachable. At exceedingly high levels (100+), the player moves faster than the chunks can load.

Effect level Sneaking speed (m/s) Walking speed (m/s) Sprinting speed (m/s)
Speed 50 14.25 m/s 47.49 m/s 61.74 m/s
Speed 127 34.19 m/s 113.97 m/s 148.17 m/s
Speed 256 67.61 m/s 225.36 m/s 292.96 m/s

Vertical transportation[edit]

There are some examples of purely vertical transportation methods:

Method Conditions Average speed (m/s)
Jumping [note 1] Climbing slope without stairs, pillar jumping, etc. 2.0 m/s
Stairs Ascending 3.2 m/s
Descending 3.6 m/s
#climbable (e.g. ladders, vines) Ascending 2.35 m/s
Descending 3.0 m/s
Soul Sand Ascending in water 11 m/s
Magma Block Descending in water 4.9 m/s
Waterfall No adjacent blocks 2.0 m/s
Ascending, with adjacent blocks 0.6 m/s
Descending, with adjacent blocks 3.4 m/s
Lavafall Using a Potion of Fire Resistance 0.8 m/s
Levitation Level 1 0.9 m/s
Flying Creative
7.5 m/s
Falling No blocks below player (terminal velocity) 78.4 m/s
Swimming Water 0.39 m/s
Scaffolding (measured on Bedrock Edition) Ascending 1.2 m/s
Descending 2.94 m/s
Scaffolding (measured on Java Edition) Ascending 2.352 m/s
Descending 3.000 m/s
  1. The player can jump up a distance of 1 14 blocks. With Jump Boost I, that increases to 1 1516 blocks, and with Jump Boost II, that increases to 2 12 blocks.

Falling speed is more complex: Every tick (120 second), non-flying players and mobs have their vertical speed decremented (less upward motion, more downward motion) by 0.08 blocks per tick (1.6 m/s), then multiplied by 0.98. This would produce a terminal velocity of 3.92 blocks per tick or 78.4 m/s. However, the sky isn't quite high enough for that: Falling from layer 256 to bedrock takes about 5.5 seconds, with impact at 3.5 blocks per tick (70 m/s). It is possible to fly higher in creative mode, potentially reaching terminal velocity falling from "above the sky".

An exact function to calculate the speed of a (free)falling player is the following: v(t) = (392/5) ((98/100)floor(20t) - 1). Where the velocity v is in blocks/second (or meters/second), the time t is in seconds, initial velocity is zero and downward motion is negative. 20 t is floored because Minecraft updates once each tick.

An exact function to calculate the displacement of the player is the following: d(t) = 392(10 - (1/5) floor(20t) - 10(49/50)floor(20t)). Where the displacement d is in blocks (meters), the time t is in seconds, initial velocity and displacement is zero and downward displacement is negative

An approximate function to calculate the time it takes to fall from some height is the following: t(d) = 1000 - 5.102d + 989.960 W-1(-0.36786e0.0051538d). Where the height d is in blocks (meters), the time t is in seconds, downward displacement is negative and W is the Lambert W function.

Other modes of transportation[edit]

  • Players are also able to use pistons for transport.
  • Dying is an instant mode of transportation to the player's bed or spawn point, but at the cost of all items and XP (if the keepInventory gamerule is disabled) and the world (on Hardcore).
  • Explosion knockback can send an adjacent player flying for a short distance, depending on the strength of the explosion. This is not recommended in Survival mode.
  • It is possible to mount minecarts and boats as long as they are within 4-5 blocks (inclusive) from the player. Placing these in a straight line allows for extremely fast transport. This also works with saddled pigs, provided they stay in position (placed on posts).


Icon Achievement In-game description Actual requirements (if different) Gamerscore earned Trophy type (PS)
On A Rail.pngOn A RailTravel by minecart to a point at least 500m in a single direction from where you started.Travel by minecart 500 blocks in a straight line away from the player's starting point.40GGold
Beam Me Up.pngBeam Me UpTeleport over 100 meters from a single throw of an Ender Pearl20GSilver
Super Sonic.pngSuper SonicUse Elytra to fly through a 1 by 1 gap while moving faster than 40 m/s30GGold


Icon Advancement In-game description Parent Actual requirements (if different) Namespaced ID
Advancement-fancy-raw.pngSubspace Bubble
Use the Nether to travel 7 km in the Overworld NetherUse the Nether to travel between 2 points in the Overworld with a minimum horizontal distance of 7000 blocks between each other, 875 blocks in the Nether.nether/fast_travel


Java Edition pre-Classic
rd-132211Added walking as the first form of locomotion.
Java Edition Classic
0.0.12aAdded water and lava. "Swimming" (more akin to treading water) has been introduced.
Java Edition Infdev
June 18, 2010Added minecarts.
June 25, 2010, 2Added saddles, which made it possible to use pigs as a (somewhat unreliable) method of transportation.
Java Edition Alpha
v1.0.6Added boats.
v1.1.1Added sneaking.
v1.2.0previewAdded the Nether in the Halloween Update, which could be used as a fast travel zone since any distance covered in the Nether is multiplied by 8 in the Overworld.
Java Edition Beta
1.5Added powered rails, which removed the need for "booster" minecarts.
1.8Pre-releaseAdded sprinting and flying in the Adventure Update.
An infamous bug where walking on the edges of blocks would accumulate step sounds and rapidly play them upon touching solid ground has been fixed.
Java Edition
1.0.0Beta 1.9 Prerelease 2Added ender pearls in the second half of the Adventure Update, which can be thrown, teleporting the player to where it lands.
Beta 1.9 Prerelease 3Added speed potions, allowing for faster travel.
1.3.112w23aBoats have been made faster.
1.4.212w36aAdded carrot on a stick in the Pretty Scary Update, which made it possible to control saddled pigs.[1] They start slow, but can reach up to 5 blocks per second (5m/sec).[2]
Before this update, the player had no control over the pig's wandering, so this was not a practical form of long-distance transportation. After this update, however, the pig does not jump when being controlled, so transportation is still limited (to the same height or downhill directions).
12w37aSaddled pigs now jump over blocks when being directed with the carrot on a stick.
12w38aTeleportation by nether portal is now instantaneous in creative mode.
1.6.113w16aAdded horses in the Horse Update.
13w16bHorses are now slower and the amount of gliding from horses has been reduced.
1.7.213w36aAdded ability to "sprint" in minecarts in The Update that Changed the World, boats and horses, and while flying in creative mode, speeding them up slightly.
1.814w05aAdded Spectator mode in the Bountiful Update, one of the fastest methods of transportation due to its no-clip ability and adjustable flying speed.
1.915w31aAdded levitation in the Combat Update.
15w41aAdded elytra in the Combat Update.
1.1318w07aAdded the ability to sprint while in water in the Update Aquatic, which causes the player to dive to the ground and actually swim. This is much faster than the previous form.
1.1620w13aAdded striders in the Nether Update, which can stride on lava allowing the player to cross lava oceans.
Pocket Edition Alpha
0.1.0Added water, therefore allowing swimming.
0.2.0Added flying.
0.8.0build 2Added minecarts and rails, allowing travel by minecart.
0.11.0build 1Added boats.
0.12.1build 1Added sneaking and sprinting.
0.14.0build 1Added ender pearls.
0.15.0build 1Added horses in the Friendly Update.
Added saddles, which can be equipped on horses and pigs to ride them.
Added carrot on a stick to control pigs when riding.
Pocket Edition
1.0.0alpha elytra in the Ender Update.
Bedrock Edition
1.4.0beta the ability to sprint while in water in the Update Aquatic, which causes the player to dive to the ground and actually swim. This is much faster than the previous form.


Issues relating to "Transportation" are maintained on the bug tracker. Report issues there.


Sprinting with Soul Speed 3 on Soul Sand while having Speed 2 is almost as fast as the fastest possible horse breed. (12.6896 m/sec)