Reason: Add speed for throwing a Trident with Riptide enchantment, speed stats for striders when using boost, and boat statistics for being on land, on slime blocks (which have a different friction value) and honey blocks or other blocks that affect boat speed. Add calculations for how many blocks you need to fall to reach terminal velocity vertically in 1.17 with the increased height limit. Also, walking diagonally is faster
|Method||Conditions||Running start effective?||Average speed in m/s (blocks per second)[note 1]||Average speed in km/h (1000 blocks per hour)[note 1][note 2]||Works in the Nether?|
|Walking||Flat terrain||No||4.317 m/s||15.54 km/h||Yes|
|Soul Speed 1||No||6.066 m/s||21.84 km/h||Yes|
|Soul Speed 2||No||6.519 m/s||23.47 km/h||Yes|
|Soul Speed 3||No||6.972 m/s||25.1 km/h||Yes|
|Sprinting||Flat terrain||No||5.612 m/s||20.2 km/h||Yes|
|Soul Speed 1||No||7.885 m/s||28.39 km/h||Yes|
|Soul Speed 2||No||8.475 m/s||30.51 km/h||Yes|
|Soul Speed 3||No||9.064 m/s||32.63 km/h||Yes|
|Sneaking||Flat terrain||No||1.3 m/s||4.68 km/h||Yes|
|Soul Speed 1||No||1.819 m/s||6.55 km/h||Yes|
|Soul Speed 2||No||1.949 m/s||7.02 km/h||Yes|
|Soul Speed 3||No||2.92 m/s||10.51 km/h||Yes|
|Minecart||Powered Track||Yes, small||8.0 m/s||28.8 km/h||Yes|
|1⁄4 slope track||No||7.1 m/s||25.6 km/h||Yes|
|Minecart with Furnace [Java Edition only]||No||4.0 m/s||14.4 km/h||Yes|
|Boat[note 3]||1⁄4 slope rapids||Yes, small||7.3 m/s||26.4 km/h||No[note 4]|
|1⁄4 slope rapids||No||7.0 m/s||25.2 km/h||No[note 4]|
|Flat ice Flat packed ice Flat frosted ice||No||40.0 m/s||144.0 km/h||Yes|
|Flat blue ice||No||70.0 m/s||252.0 km/h||Yes|
|Flat water||No||8.0 m/s||28.8 km/h||No[note 4]|
|Saddled Strider||Flat land, without boost||No||1.74 m/s||6.26 km/h||Yes|
|Flat lava surface, without boost||No||4.14 m/s||14.9 km/h||Yes|
|Saddled pig||Flat terrain||No||4.0 m/s||14.4 km/h||Yes|
|Flat terrain, using carrot on a stick||Yes||4.19 m/s||15.08 km/h||Yes|
|Horse [note 5]||Flat terrain (average horse speed)||No||9.49 m/s||34.16 km/h||Yes|
|Flat terrain, fastest possible horse breed||No||14.23 m/s||51.22 km/h||Yes|
|Flat terrain||No||7.525 m/s||27.125 km/h||Yes|
|Flat terrain||No||8.62 m/s||31.03 km/h||Yes|
|Swimming||Still water, surface[note 6]||No||2.20 m/s||7.92 km/h||No[note 4]|
|Still water, underwater[note 7]||No||1.97 m/s||7.09 km/h||No[note 4]|
|Upstream, underwater||No||0.39 m/s||1.40 km/h||No[note 4]|
|Downstream, underwater||No||1.81 m/s||6.52 km/h||No[note 4]|
|While Diving||No||0.39 m/s||1.40 km/h||No[note 4]|
|Downstream, underwater, standing||No||1.37 m/s||4.93 km/h||No[note 4]|
|Dolphin's Grace status effect||No||8.0 m/s||28.8 km/h||No[note 4]|
|Dolphin's Grace status effect with Depth Strider III||No||48.0 m/s||172.8 km/h||No[note 4]|
|Dolphin's Grace status effect with Depth Strider III and Soul Speed III on a layer of Soul Soil underwater [note 8]||No||75.0 m/s||270 km/h||No[note 4]|
|Dolphin's Grace status effect with Depth Strider III and Soul Speed III on a layer of Soul Soil underwater, aligned at a +/-45 or +/-135 degree angle, depending on travel direction, and holding forward, left/right (left if -135 or 45, right if 135 or -45), and the sprint key [note 9]||No||146.965 m/s||529.074 km/h||No[note 4]|
|Flying (horizontal)[note 10]||Creative Mode||Yes||11.0 m/s||39.6 km/h||Yes|
| Creative Mode
|Yes||22.0 m/s||79.2 km/h||Yes|
| Spectator Mode
|Yes||43.556 m/s||156.8016 km/h||Yes|
| Spectator Mode
|Yes||87.111 m/s||313.5996 km/h||Yes|
|Ender Pearl||Thrown 15° above horizontal||No||~23.0 m/s||~82.8 km/h||Yes|
|Biggest TNT pearl cannon[note 11]||Yes||1,760,000 m/s (1.760 Mm/s)||6,336,000 km/h (6.336 Gm/h)||Yes|
|Elytra[note 12]||Gliding at 0° pitch||Yes, small||30.0 m/s||108.0 km/h||Yes|
|Continuous rocket boost||No||33.5 m/s||120.6 km/h||Yes|
|Gliding at 52° pitch down||Yes||67.3 m/s||242.3 km/h||Yes|
|Gliding at 90° pitch down||Yes||78.4 m/s||282.2 km/h||Only when above bedrock level[note 13]|
- Multiply the value by 8 to get the Overworld equivalent when doing this in the Nether.
- Divide by 3 to get kilometres per game day, or by 6 to get kilometres per half-day (from dawn to sunset)
- The time taken by a boat to reach maximum speed is 9.4 seconds—the difference in time between a running start and not, is half that, or 4.7 seconds.
- In the Nether, water cannot be placed without the use of commands.
- Horses vary in speed. They are the fastest method of land transportation on open but unprepared terrain.
- The swimming speeds are not affected by Swiftness potions. The surface speed refers to "skimming" across the top of the water by holding the spacebar.
- Underwater refers to any part of the body submerged in water and walking on flat terrain. The Player travels the same speed regardless of if the water is 1 block deep or 2 (in observed cases).
- Data based on https://youtu.be/PuXX2zkEs48?t=178.
- Data based on https://youtu.be/ySREkWjks6A.
- Flying speed can be varied.
- Data based on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=79Cqxz1-2f8.
- Values are faster than those listed if the player has the Slow Falling status effect.
- it is technically possible below; however, the size between the roof of the nether and the floor is 124 blocks, meaning that it would take less than 2 seconds to go down. Also, achieving speed requires either using rocket boost, or starting above the roof.
Each additional level of Speed allows the player to walk at nearly the sprinting speed of the previous level, and sprinting with Speed II is only slightly slower than a minecart at full speed or a boosted pig. With adequate food and potion supplies, sprinting may be more cost-effective than building high-speed transportation systems.
|Effect level||Walking speed (m/s)||Sprinting speed (m/s)|
|none||4.317 m/s||5.612 m/s|
|Speed||5.181 m/s||6.735 m/s|
|Speed II||6.044 m/s||7.857 m/s|
|Effect level||Sneaking speed (m/s)||Walking speed (m/s)||Sprinting speed (m/s)|
|Speed 50||14.25 m/s||47.49 m/s||61.74 m/s|
|Speed 127||34.19 m/s||113.97 m/s||148.17 m/s|
|Speed 256||67.61 m/s||225.36 m/s||292.96 m/s|
There are some examples of purely vertical transportation methods:
|Method||Conditions||Average speed (m/s)|
|Jumping [note 1]||Climbing slope without stairs, pillar jumping, etc.||2.0 m/s|
|#climbable (e.g. ladders, vines)||Ascending||2.35 m/s|
|Soul Sand||Ascending in water||11 m/s|
|Magma Block||Descending in water||4.9 m/s|
|Waterfall||No adjacent blocks||2.0 m/s|
|Ascending, with adjacent blocks||0.6 m/s|
|Descending, with adjacent blocks||3.4 m/s|
|Lavafall||Using a Potion of Fire Resistance||0.8 m/s|
|Levitation||Level 1||0.9 m/s|
|Falling||No blocks below player (terminal velocity)||78.4 m/s|
|Scaffolding (measured on Bedrock Edition)||Ascending||1.2 m/s|
|Scaffolding (measured on Java Edition)||Ascending||2.352 m/s|
- The player can jump up a distance of 1 1⁄4 blocks. With Jump Boost I, that increases to 1 15⁄16 blocks, and with Jump Boost II, that increases to 2 1⁄2 blocks.
Falling speed is more complex: Every tick (1⁄20 second), non-flying players and mobs have their vertical speed decremented (less upward motion, more downward motion) by 0.08 blocks per tick (1.6 m/s), then multiplied by 0.98. This would produce a terminal velocity of 3.92 blocks per tick or 78.4 m/s. However, the sky isn't quite high enough for that: Falling from layer 256 to bedrock takes about 5.5 seconds, with impact at 3.5 blocks per tick (70 m/s). It is possible to fly higher in creative mode, or by flying with elytra and then removing them, reaching terminal velocity falling from "above the sky".
An exact function to calculate the speed of a (free)falling player is the following: v(t) = (392/5) ((98/100)floor(20t) - 1). Where the velocity v is in blocks/second (or meters/second), the time t is in seconds, initial velocity is zero and downward motion is negative. 20 t is floored because Minecraft updates once each tick.
An exact function to calculate the displacement of the player is the following: d(t) = 392(10/20 - (1/5)*t - 10/20*(49/50)floor(20t)). Where the displacement d is in blocks (meters), the time t is in seconds, initial velocity and displacement is zero and downward displacement is negative. Or d(N) = 196 - 196 * 0.98N - 3.92 * N where N is the number of game ticks elapsed. Formula with initial conditions d(N) = y0 + 50*(vt0+3.92)*(1-0.98N) - 3.92*N where y0 is the starting height and vt0 is the upwards speed in [m/tick]. Or d(t) = y0 + (2.5*v0+196)*(1-0.9820*t) - 78.4*t where v0 is given in m/s.
An approximate function to calculate the time it takes to fall from some height is the following: t(d) = 1000 - 5.102d + 989.960 W-1(-0.36786e0.0051538d). Where the height d is in blocks (meters), the time t is in seconds, downward displacement is negative and W is the Lambert W function.
Other modes of transportation
- Players are also able to use pistons for transport.
- Dying is an instant mode of transportation to the player's bed or spawn point, but at the cost of all items and XP (if the
keepInventorygamerule is disabled) and the world (on Hardcore).
- Explosion knockback can send an adjacent player flying for a short distance, depending on the strength of the explosion. This is not recommended in Survival mode.
- It is possible to mount minecarts and boats as long as they are within 4-5 blocks (inclusive) from the player. Placing these in a straight line allows for extremely fast transport. This also works with saddled pigs, provided they stay in position (placed on posts).
|Icon||Achievement||In-game description||Actual requirements (if different)||Gamerscore earned||Trophy type (PS)|
|On A Rail||Travel by minecart to a point at least 500m in a single direction from where you started.||Travel by minecart 500 blocks in a straight line away from the player's starting point.||40G||Gold|
|Beam Me Up||Teleport over 100 meters from a single throw of an Ender Pearl||Throw an ender pearl 100 blocks in any direction||20G||Silver|
|Super Sonic||Use Elytra to fly through a 1 by 1 gap while moving faster than 40 m/s||—||30G||Gold|
|Icon||Advancement||In-game description||Parent||Actual requirements (if different)||Namespaced ID|
|Subspace Bubble||Use the Nether to travel 7 km in the Overworld||Nether||Use the Nether to travel between 2 points in the Overworld with a minimum horizontal distance of 7000 blocks between each other, which is 875 blocks in the Nether.|
|Java Edition pre-Classic|
|rd-131655||Added walking and jumping as the first form of locomotion.|
|Java Edition Classic|
|0.0.12a||Added water and lava. "Swimming" (more akin to treading water) has been introduced.|
|0.26 SURVIVAL TEST||Added slabs as a means of vertical transportation without jumping.|
|Java Edition Infdev|
|20100327||The player now drops their inventory and respawns at the spawn point upon death, enabling instant transportation at the cost of all of the player's items.|
|20100607||Added ladders as a means of vertical transportation without jumping.|
|20100618||Added minecarts and rails.|
|20100625-2||Added saddles, which made it possible to use pigs as an uncontrollable method of transportation.|
|20100629||Added stairs, as a more compact method of vertical transportation compared to slabs.|
|Java Edition Alpha|
|v1.0.14||Added minecarts with furnaces as a way to propel minecarts.|
|v1.2.0||preview||Added the Nether, which could be used for fast travel, as any distance covered in the Nether is multiplied by 8 in the Overworld.|
|Java Edition Beta|
|1.5||Added powered rails, which eliminates the need for "booster" minecarts and furnace minecarts.|
|1.8||Pre-release||Added sprinting, which can be started by double-tapping forward.|
|Added Creative mode, where the player can fly.|
|Added the hunger bar, which gradually depletes when the player walks, jumps, sneaks, swims or sprints.|
|An infamous bug where walking on the edges of blocks would accumulate step sounds and rapidly play them upon touching solid ground has been fixed.|
|Added ender pearls, which are currently useless.|
|1.0.0||Beta 1.9 Prerelease 2||Ender pearls can now be thrown, teleporting the player to where it lands.|
|Beta 1.9 Prerelease 3||The Speed effect can now be obtained from potions of swiftness, allowing for faster travel.|
|1.3.1||12w23a||Boats have been made faster and easier to control.|
|1.4.2||12w34a||Entities can now travel through portals, allowing transportation of mobs between dimensions.|
|12w36a||Added carrots on a stick, making it possible to control saddled pigs. They start slow, but can reach up to 5 blocks per second (5m/sec).|
|Before this update, the player had no control over the pig's wandering, so this was not a practical form of long-distance transportation. After this update, however, the pig does not jump when being controlled, so transportation is still limited (to the same height or downhill directions).|
|12w37a||Saddled pigs now jump over blocks when being directed with the carrot on a stick.|
|12w38a||Teleportation by nether portal is now instantaneous in creative mode.|
|1.6.1||13w16a||Added horses, which can be ridden when tamed and equipped with saddles.|
|13w16b||Horses are now slower and the amount of gliding from horses has been reduced.|
|1.7.2||13w36a||Added a sprint button (default to Left Ctrl) as an alternative way to start sprinting.|
|1.8||14w05a||Added Spectator mode, where the player can fly through solid blocks, and adjust their flying speed.|
|14w18a||Slime blocks can now be moved by pistons, allowing automatic flying machines to be built.|
|14w25a||Added the Depth Strider enchantment, allowing faster movement through water.|
|14w34d||Pressing the sprint button now speeds up flying in Creative mode.|
|1.9||15w31a||Added chorus fruits, which causes the player to teleport to a random nearby location.|
|Added the Levitation status effect, which causes the player to float upwards.|
|15w41a||Added elytra, enabling controlled true flight in Survival.|
|Boats have received an overhaul. They now have paddles, are much slower than before, are controlled with left and right keys, can have mobs as passengers, but no longer breaks upon impact.|
|15w42a||Boats have been made faster again, matching the speed of the old boats.|
|15w45a||The player's jump height is increased from 1.125 blocks to 1.25 blocks.|
|16w04a||Boats are now controlled with forward and backwards keys again.|
|16w05a||Boats can now travel fast on ice and packed ice.|
|1.11||16w32a||The hunger cost of most player actions have been greatly reduced, with walking and sneaking no longer costing any hunger.|
|1.11.1||16w50a||Added the ability to propel elytra with firework rockets.|
|1.13||18w07a||The player can now sprint-swim when their head is submerged underwater, allowing faster and more controllable underwater movement.|
|Added bubble columns as a form of vertical transport.|
|Added tridents and the Riptide enchantment, which launches a player touching water or rain.|
|18w15a||Added blue ice, which allows boats to travel even faster on top of it.|
|18w19a||Added the Dolphin's Grace effect, allowing the player to swim quickly next to dolphins.|
|1.14||18w45a||Added scaffolding as a form of vertical transport.|
|19w14a||The player can now crawl when they are forced into spaces less than 1.5 blocks high.|
|1.16||20w11a||Added the Soul Speed enchantment, allowing faster travel on soul sand and soul soil.|
|20w13a||Added striders, which can stride on lava, allowing the player to cross lava oceans.|
|1.16.2||Pre-release 1||Ender pearls are now affected by bubble columns, making it easier to build ender pearl stasis chambers that instantly teleports the player to the location upon activation.|
|Pocket Edition Alpha|
|0.1.0||Added water, therefore allowing swimming.|
|0.8.0||build 2||Added minecarts and rails, allowing travel by minecart.|
|0.11.0||build 1||Added boats.|
|0.12.1||build 1||Added sneaking and sprinting.|
|0.14.0||build 1||Added ender pearls.|
|0.15.0||build 1||Added horses in the Friendly Update.|
|Added saddles, which can be equipped on horses and pigs to ride them.|
|Added carrot on a stick to control pigs when riding.|
|1.0.0||alpha 0.17.0.1||Added elytra in the Ender Update.|
|1.4.0||beta 126.96.36.199||Added the ability to sprint while in water in the Update Aquatic, which causes the player to dive to the ground and actually swim. This is much faster than the previous form.|