Transportation is any method of moving around the world that is faster than running. Currently, there are two vehicles in Minecraft: the boat and the minecart. As of update 1.6, there are now horses, and as of update 1.11, there are now llamas. Riding a saddled pig also counts as transportation. There are also Nether Portals that can be used to travel long distances.
Boats are small, wooden crafts that are used to cross bodies of water. They are crafted with 5 Wooden Planks.
Minecarts are rideable carts that run on rails. They are crafted with 5 Iron Ingots. There are multiple variants of minecarts, including Minecart with Chest, a Minecart with TNT, a Minecart with Hopper, a Minecart with Furnace, and a Minecart with Command Block.
Horses, mules, donkeys, pigs and llamas are rideable mobs with differing movement speeds and functionality. Horses are tamable Mobs that, when tamed, can be equipped with a saddle and ridden. They are by far the fastest mode of transportation in Minecraft, and have the capability to jump very high. Horses can be found mainly in plains biomes, and they have a chance to spawn as a donkey which can be equipped the same way horses can; however, they can also hold a chest with items in it. Mules are a combination of both horses and donkeys as they can hold chests like donkeys, but can be faster and jump higher than donkeys. Mules can only be obtained when a player breeds a horse and a donkey.
Pigs can be used in a similar manner as horses. However, they are considerably slower, can't jump as high as horses, and can't be controlled without a Carrot on a Stick.
Llamas are tamable mobs that are similar to donkeys as they can hold chests; however, the llama's chest inventory is random, so a player may only get one inventory slot or many depending on the llama. However, llamas cannot be controlled like a donkey can, but llamas will follow a llama with a lead attached to it so the player can move it around, similarly to a caravan. Because of this, llamas are good for transporting items instead of players.
Distance traveled in the Nether is in a ratio of 8:1 to the overworld. This means that walking through the Nether is faster than almost any mode of transport in the overworld. If minecarts, horses, or pigs are used in the Nether, then travel times will be reduced even more.