Minecraft Wiki
"Terrain" redirects here. For the old image file used to load block textures, see terrain.png.
This article is about terrain generation. For generated features after terrain generation, see Feature. For generated structures, see Generated structure.

This page lists generated terrain features that are created in a Minecraft world.



For the biome, see Windswept Hills.

Hills can contain extreme slopes, cliffs and caves. On an amplified world, hills are extremely common in all biomes except oceans.


For the biome, see Mountains.

Mountains are high elevation terrain that has jagged peaks and higher land.


Cliffs are steep vertical slopes that can sometimes generate beside an ocean or a big lake.


Fjords happen when rivers cut through high-medium elevation terrain. Rivers are deeper here than usual.

Floating island[]

Floating islands are structures that float in mid-air. Floating islands are normally just small chunks of floating dirt and stone found near cliffs, but on rare occasions they can be large structures that even have springs and trees on them. Floating islands are most frequently found in windswept hills biomes and their variants, as well windswept savannas.

Noise cave[]

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Surface layer[]

The uppermost layers of the terrain are converted to a biome-dependent material: usually grass blocks and dirt, or sand in deserts and beaches. Podzol is found in giant tree taiga, mycelium in mushroom field biomes, and red sand is found in the badlands biome. Sandstone is generated under the sand.


Occasionally, instead of being converted to dirt or sand, the top layer is stripped away, leaving an 'erosion' (aka. 'basin') of bare stone. They occur more often in forests or plains and occasionally contain water. Commonly, minerals can be found in these, generally coal ore and iron ore. If generated in a Badlands biome, gold ore can also be seen.


Strips are long stretches of blocks in certain biomes that replace the typical surface materials in these biomes. They can occur in stony shore biomes as strips of gravel, in stony peaks biomes as strips of calcite, in frozen peaks biomes as strips of packed ice, as well as in grove and snowy slopes biomes as strips of powder snow.


Hoodoos are tall spike-like structures found in badlands, consisting of six colors of terracotta. While this structure is found exclusively in eroded badlands, all badlands biomes actually have this structure, but set to false except for eroded badlands and can occasionally pass altitude layer 100.


This article is about a terrain feature known as iceberg. For a feature called iceberg, see Iceberg (feature).

An iceberg is a large terrain feature composed of packed ice and snow block. There is also a feature known as an iceberg, see Iceberg (feature).

Icebergs generate in frozen oceans and deep frozen oceans. They consist of packed ice, and can be topped with snow block. Icebergs generate in a wide variety of shapes and sizes, ranging from small islands to giant mountain-like icebergs. They can also generate with cave-like holes in them, which sometimes pass through to the other side of the iceberg.

There are often blue ice features attached to them.


  • Carver caves – large tunnels found underground in the Overworld and the Nether.
  • Canyons – deep long cracks


The Nether[]

Lava sea[]

Lava seas are found at and below level 31 in the Nether. They make a large portion of the Nether and are extremely common. They can stretch for hundreds of blocks in any direction, and are usually bordered by netherrack, or occasionally soul sand, gravel and/or magma blocks. Striders can spawn in lava seas.

Unlike with Overworld oceans, lava seas are not handled as a biome.[1]

Nether erosions[]

In the Nether, erosions generate the same size and shape as they do in the Overworld. Unlike their Overworld counterparts, however, Nether erosions replace the ground with netherrack instead of stone. Nether erosions can also expose ores, mainly nether quartz ore and nether gold ore.

Notably, erosions generate independent of the y-coordinate; if a erosion generates in an overhang in the Nether, an identical erosion is guaranteed to generate at the exact same x and z coordinates on the ground below such an overhang.


  • Carver caves – large tunnels found underground in the Overworld and the Nether.

The End[]

Central island[]

The center of the End is a large, asteroid-like island composed entirely of end stone, floating in the void. At a distance of 1000 blocks away, an endless expanse of more islands begins, away from the main island. These consist of large islands, about the size of the main island, and smaller ones, which are usually thin and small.

Outer island[]

The outer end islands are found 1000 blocks away from the central island. They vary in size from large islands to smaller "mini islands". Generated structures such as end cities and end ships spawn here, along with chorus plants and erosions. The player can be taken to the end islands through the end gateway.

Obsidian platform[]

Main article: Obsidian platform

The obsidian platform is a square of obsidian that generates when an entity enters the End.

End erosions[]

Erosions generate in the End as they would in the Overworld and the Nether, with the exception being that they never expose any ores. End erosions may generate on both the central island and outer islands, and chorus plants can occasionally take root in the erosions.


This section needs cleanup to comply with the style guide. [discuss]
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Reason: move features to Feature
Clock JE3
This section needs to be updated. 
Please update this section to reflect recent updates or newly available information.
Reason: Add all 1.17-1.19 terrain feature
Java Edition pre-Classic
Cave game tech testDevelopment on "Cave Game" started; caverns added.
Java Edition Classic
0.0.12aAdded ocean around map.
0.0.14aAdded trees. At this point they were simply stumps covered with a thin leaf layer.
0.0.15a (Multiplayer Test 1)Trees have a new shape.
August 25, 2009Video uploaded showing changed cavern generation; longer and narrower caverns, and bigger caves the deeper you travel.
Surface lava lakes shown to be possible but unlikely, despite existing as early as 0.0.12a_03.
Java Edition Infdev
20100227-1Temporarily removed caves, trees and ores to test basic infinite world functionality.
20100320Re-added trees and ores.
20100325Re-added caves.
Redid mineral blobs
20100327Caves are removed again.
20100616Caves are now again implemented.
Java Edition Alpha
v1.0.1Caves can now be far bigger and more expansive.
v1.2.0previewAdded the Nether but not all Nether-related generated structures.
v1.2.6Added small lakes and rare lava pools, both on the surface and randomly in caves.
Java Edition Beta
1.8Pre-releaseAdded huge mushrooms.
Added river biomes and vast oceans.
Sand and gravel beaches removed due to the changes in the terrain generation algorithm.
Java Edition
1.0.0Beta 1.9 Prerelease 4Added the End and End-related main island generated structures, including the End island, the obsidian platform, the end spikes and the exit portal.
1.112w01aSand beaches have made a return, but the way they look and generate are not the same as before.
1.2.112w07aThe generation of beaches has been greatly improved.
1.6.113w17aWater oases no longer generate in deserts.
1.7.213w36aGravel beaches have been returned to the terrain.
Mountains now generate as part of the "M" biome variants.
The desert oases appear in the desert M biome.
Moss stone boulders were added.
1.915w31aAdded the outer islands of the End.
Added chorus plants.
Added the end gateway portal.
1.1318w08aCaves and canyons can now generate underwater.
Frozen Ocean have made a return, but without customized, they look and generate, but are not the same unused.
18w10dAdded coral reefs.
18w15aAdded icebergs.
1.1620w06aAdded basalt pillars.
Pocket Edition Alpha
v0.1.0Added sand and gravel beaches, oceans, frozen oceans, cliffs, mountains, erosions, blobs, springs, and trees.
v0.9.0build 1Added caves, lava pools, rivers, huge mushrooms, moss stone boulders, ice patches, and ice spikes.
Frozen oceans no longer generate.
Removed gravel beaches.
v0.12.1build 1Added the Nether, along with lava oceans, glowstone clusters, soul sand beaches, hidden lava, gravel beaches, and nether quartz blobs.
Pocket Edition
1.0.0alpha the End and End-related generated structures, including the End islands, the obsidian platform, the obsidian towers, the end fountain, end cities, end gateways, and chorus trees.
Bedrock Edition
1.2.0beta ravines.
1.4.0beta icebergs.
Added coral reefs.
Ravines can now generate underwater.
Frozen oceans have made a return, but the way they look and generate are not the same as before.
beta can now generate underwater.
1.16.0beta basalt pillars.
Legacy Console Edition
TU5CU1 1.0 Patch 11.0.1Added ravines.
Sand and gravel beaches removed due to the changes in the terrain generation algorithm.
TU9Added the End along with End-related structures such as the End island, the obsidian platform, the obsidian towers, and the end fountain.
Sand beaches have made a return, but the way they look and generate is not the same as before.
TU19CU7 1.12 Water oases no longer generate in deserts.
TU69 1.76 Patch 38Added coral reefs and underwater caves and ravines.
New Nintendo 3DS Edition
1.7.10Added chorus plants.



  1. MC-177716 — resolved as "Invaild".