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The furnace interface. Note the form how are displayed the spaces.

Smelting is a method of obtaining refined goods from raw materials by heating in a furnace, blast furnace, or smoker. For example, raw iron can be smelted to produce iron ingots using coal as fuel. Like crafting, smelting uses recipes to determine what item is produced, but its recipes are simpler. Smelting also yields experience.

Usage and mechanics[]



The smelting interface.

The furnace, blast furnace, and smoker share a similar interface: At the upper left is a slot for smeltable item input, below that is a slot for fuel input, and on the right is a slot where output items accumulate and can be removed by the player. Flames above the fuel slot act as a gauge showing the gradual consumption of the current fuel item, and an arrow in the middle gradually fills to show the progress of smelting the current input item.

To smelt, an input item and fuel must be placed into the input and fuel slots, respectively. The furnace then begins to smelt and will continue even after the player closes the interface. (The player can still tell when a furnace is working by its block texture showing flames and fire particle effects appearing.)

The furnace burns one fuel item at a time, with the fuel gauge indicating how much of that item's burn time remains. As each fuel item is fully consumed, another one is taken from the fuel slot and the gauge starts over.

Smeltable input items are also processed one at a time, but are not removed from the input slot while smelting is in progress. The arrow indicates how much of the smelting process has completed. When the arrow is full, the input item is removed from the input stack and an output item is added to the output stack. Smelting of the next input item then begins immediately.

Smelting stops under any of four conditions:

  • When the furnace runs out of smeltable items: That is, the input slot becomes empty.
  • The furnace runs out of fuel: The fuel input slot is empty and the current fuel item is fully consumed (that is, the fuel gauge becomes empty).
  • The output slot becomes full: Either the slot has full stack of the output, or the output contains the wrong output item for the current input item. (For example, if the output contains iron ingots but the input contains raw gold.) In this case, smelting (but not fuel consumption) is paused until the output slot becomes available (usually because items were removed by either a player or a hopper). If a fuel item burns out in this condition, a new one will not be used until the output slot is again available.
  • The furnace is broken: This will drop the contents of all the slots, any accumulated experience, and the furnace itself. The currently-burning fuel item will be lost, since it is removed from the fuel slot before burning begins. The furnace item may not be dropped if it was destroyed by an explosion.

If smelting stops while a fuel item is still burning (a normal occurrence), the furnace will continue to run visually but no more input items will be processed. If the fuel is exhausted (and the fuel gauge is empty) when an item is partly smelted, the smelting progress is undone at double speed and the item remains in the input stack.

Smelting is suspended if players move far enough away from the furnace (including going to another dimension) that simulation stops in the chunk the furnace is in. It will resume when a player returns.

If the player sleeps in a bed while a furnace is smelting items, the furnace's progress remains the same as if the bed had not been used and no additional time had passed. This is because when a player sleeps in a bed, no time actually passes; the game simply sets the time of day to morning.

The furnace keeps track of experience for each item as smelting is completed for it, accumulating it in a hidden counter. It remembers the total earned experience even if a hopper is used to remove the items from the output slot. This earned experience is awarded to the next player who uses the interface to remove items manually, after which the counter is reset. (If the player takes some of the output but leaves some in the slot, the experience corresponding to those items is retained by the furnace and not awarded to the player.)

Recipes[]

All smelting recipes can be used in the furnace, but only subsets are available in the blast furnace and smoker.

Foods[]

All food recipes can be used in a furnace or smoker. Food can alternatively be cooked on a campfire, which doesn't require any fuel and is faster (when cooking 4 at a time) than a furnace, but which doesn't award any experience and is slower than a smoker.

Food
Product Ingredient Exp Description

Cooked Porkchop

Raw Porkchop
0.35 Fills 8 (🍗🍗🍗🍗), while raw fills 3 (🍗🍗).

Steak

Raw Beef
0.35 Fills 8 (🍗🍗🍗🍗), while raw fills 3 (🍗🍗).

Cooked Chicken

Raw Chicken
0.35 Fills 6 (🍗🍗🍗), while raw fills 2 (🍗) and has a 30% chance to give the Hunger status effect.

Cooked Cod

Raw Cod
0.35 Fills 5 (🍗🍗🍗), while raw fills 2 (🍗).

Cooked Salmon

Raw Salmon
0.35 Fills 6 (🍗🍗🍗), while raw fills 2 (🍗).

Baked Potato

Potato
0.35 Fills 5 (🍗🍗🍗), while raw fills 1 (🍗).

Cooked Mutton

Raw Mutton
0.35 Fills 6 (🍗🍗🍗), while raw fills 2 (🍗).

Cooked Rabbit

Raw Rabbit
0.35 Fills 5 (🍗🍗🍗), while raw fills 3 (🍗🍗).

Dried Kelp

Kelp
0.1 Fills 1 (🍗), while uncooked kelp is inedible. Used to craft Dried Kelp Blocks.

Ores[]

All ore recipes can be used in a furnace or blast furnace.

Product Ingredient Exp Description

Copper Ingot

Raw Copper
0.7 Used to craft various items, including spyglasses, lightning rods, and copper blocks.

Iron Ingot

Raw Iron
0.7 Used to craft various items, including blast furnaces, anvils, iron blocks, iron nuggets, rails, buckets, cauldrons, chains, compasses, crossbows, flint-and-steels, heavy-weighted pressure plates, hoppers, iron trapdoors, minecarts, pistons, shears, shields, iron armor, iron tools, stonecutters and tripwire hooks.

Gold Ingot

Raw Gold
1 Used to craft various items, including netherite ingots, gold blocks, golden apples, gold nuggets, clocks, golden armor, golden tools, powered rails and light-weighted pressure plates. Also used as a currency for bartering.

Gold Ingot

Nether Gold Ore
1 Used to craft various items, and as a currency for bartering with piglins.
Nether Gold Ore can only be obtained by mining with a Silk Touch pickaxe.

Netherite Scrap

Ancient Debris
2 Used to craft netherite ingots, which can be used to upgrade diamond gear and craft netherite blocks as well as lodestones.

The following additional ores can be smelted, but it's more efficient to mine them with an appropriate pickaxe. Mining them saves fuel and in most cases yields more product and experience, especially if the pickaxe has a Fortune enchantment. Smelting them, though, allows obtaining them from an automatic device. The ore blocks themselves can be obtained only via the Silk Touch enchantment.

Product Ingredient Exp Description

Copper Ingot

Copper Ore
0.7 Used to craft various items.

Diamond

Diamond Ore
1 Used to craft various items, enchanting tables, jukeboxes and diamond blocks.
When normally mined drops 1 diamond and 3–7.

Gold Ingot

Gold Ore
1 Used to craft various items, and as a currency for bartering with piglins.

Iron Ingot

Iron Ore
0.7 Used to craft various items.

Lapis Lazuli

Lapis Lazuli Ore
0.2 Used for enchanting and for crafting blue dyes and lapis lazuli blocks.
When normally mined drops 4–8 lapis lazuli and 2–5.

Redstone Dust

Redstone Ore
0.3 Used to craft various items and redstone blocks, brewing, or placed as redstone wire.
When normally mined drops 4–5 redstone and 1–5.

Coal

Coal Ore
0.1 Used as a fuel, and to craft torches, campfires and coal blocks.
When normally mined drops 1 coal and 0–2.

Emerald

Emerald Ore
1 Used for trading, and to craft emerald blocks.
When normally mined drops 1 emerald and 3–7.

Nether Quartz

Nether Quartz Ore
0.2 Used to craft various items and quartz blocks.
When normally mined drops 1 nether quartz and 2–5.

Furnace-only[]

These recipes are exclusive to the furnace.

Product Ingredient Exp Description

Glass


Sand

0.1 Used to make transparent structures. Also used to craft glass panes, glass bottles, stained glass, end crystals, daylight detectors, and beacons.

Stone

Cobblestone
0.1 Used as a building material. Also used for crafting stone pressure plates, stone buttons, stone bricks, grindstones, stonecutters, redstone repeaters and comparators. Can be smelted into smooth stone.

Smooth Sandstone

Sandstone
0.1 Used as a building material. Also used for crafting smooth sandstone slabs and stairs.

Smooth Red Sandstone

Red Sandstone
0.1 Used as a building material. Also used for crafting smooth red sandstone slabs and stairs.

Smooth Stone

Stone
0.1 Used as a building material. Also used for crafting smooth stone slabs, armor stands, and blast furnaces.

Smooth Quartz

Block of Quartz
0.1 Used as a building material. Also used for crafting smooth quartz slabs and stairs.

Brick

Clay Ball
0.3 Used to make bricks and flower pots.

Nether Brick

Netherrack
0.1 Used to make nether bricks, nether brick fences and red nether bricks.

Cracked Nether Bricks


Nether Bricks

0.1 Decoration block.

Smooth Basalt


Basalt

0.1 Decoration block.

Terracotta

Clay
0.35 Decoration block. Also used for crafting dyed terracotta. Can be smelted into glazed terracotta.

Cracked Stone Bricks

Stone Bricks
0.1 Decoration block.

Cracked Polished Blackstone Bricks

Polished Blackstone Bricks
0.1 Decoration block.

Deepslate

Cobbled Deepslate
0.1 Decoration block.

Cracked Deepslate Bricks

Deepslate Bricks
0.1 Decoration block.

Cracked Deepslate Tiles

Deepslate Tiles
0.1 Decoration block.

Glazed Terracotta

Dyed Terracotta
0.1 Decoration block. Can be pushed by pistons but does not stick.

Green Dye

Cactus
1‌[Java Edition only]
0.2‌[Bedrock Edition only]
Used as a dye.

Charcoal

Log

Stripped Log

Wood

Stripped Wood
0.15 Used to craft torches, soul torches, campfires and fire charges, and as fuel for smelting or for a minecart with furnace[JE only]. Input must be an Overworld log or wood, not sticks, planks, or stems.

Popped Chorus Fruit

Chorus Fruit
0.1 Used to make purpur blocks and end rods. Cannot be eaten.

Sponge

Wet Sponge
0.15 Used to soak up water. Drying a sponge allows it to be reused. If an empty bucket is in the fuel slot when smelting finishes, it becomes a water bucket. Wet sponges can also be instantly dried when placed in the Nether.

Lime Dye

Sea Pickle
0.1 Used as a dye.

Gear[]

These recipes can be used in a furnace or blast furnace to recycle unneeded gear (tools, weapons, and armor).

Product Ingredient Exp Description

Iron Nugget


Tools, armor and horse armor made from iron; chainmail armor
0.1 Can be crafted into lanterns, chains, or iron ingots.

Gold Nugget

Tools, armor and horse armor made from gold
0.1 Can be crafted into golden carrots, glistering melons, or gold ingots.

For fractional experience values, first multiply this value by the number of smelted items removed from the furnace, then award the player the whole-number part, and if there is a fractional part remaining, this represents the chance of an additional experience point.

  • For example, when smelting 1 coal ore and removing the coal, the value is 0.1, so every ten coal you remove grants you one experience point on average.
  • When smelting 5 sea pickles and removing all 5 lime dye, the value is 0.2 × 5 = 1, so this grants only 1 point.
  • The fractional experience stays within the furnace when the final total is not an integer, so the leftover experience is attributed to the next round of smelting.

Fuel[]

There are multiple fuels that can be used to smelt items. The type of fuel that should be used depends on the number of items in question.

For larger jobs, a single lava bucket or a block of coal can smelt more items than can fit in the furnace—both input and output are limited to a stack of 64, but a block of coal smelts 80 items, and lava can smelt 100 items.

Items that can be used as fuel in all types of furnaces[]

Fuel Burning time
(seconds)
[note 1]
Number of operations per fuel Number of operations per stack (64) of fuel
[note 2]
Seconds per log
[note 3]
Amount needed to burn a stack (64) of items Notes
Lava Bucket 1000
16:40
20000 ticks
100 100 None used 0.64 If a lava bucket is used as fuel, an empty bucket remains in the fuel slot.
Block of Coal 800
13:20
16000 ticks
80 5120 None used 0.8
Dried Kelp Block 200
3:20
4000 ticks
20 1280 None used 3.2
Blaze Rod 120
2:00
2400 ticks
12 768 None used 13
Coal 80
1:20
1600 ticks
8 512 None used 8
Charcoal 80
1:20
1600 ticks
8 512 68 47
(~68.57)
[note 4]
8
Any Boat 60
1200 ticks
6 6 48 10 23 [Java Edition only]
Any Boat 60
1200 ticks
6 6 34 27
(~34.29)
10 23 [Bedrock Edition only]
Scaffolding 60
1200 ticks
6 384 None used 10 13 [Bedrock Edition only]
Scaffolding 20
400 ticks
2 128 None used 32 [Java Edition only]
Bee Nest 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 None used 42 23 [Bedrock Edition only]
Beehive 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 10 42 23 [Bedrock Edition only]
Overworld Log or Stripped Log 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 15 42 23
Overworld Wood or Stripped Wood 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 11.25 42 23
Overworld Planks 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 60 42 23
Overworld Wooden Slab 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 120 42 23 [Bedrock Edition only]
Overworld Wooden Slab 7.5
150 ticks
0.75 48 60 85 13 [Java Edition only]
Overworld Wooden Stairs 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 40 42 23
Overworld Wooden Pressure Plate 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 30 42 23
Overworld Wooden Button 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 60 42 23 [Bedrock Edition only]
Overworld Wooden Button 5
100 ticks
0.5 32 20 128 [Java Edition only]
Overworld Wooden Trapdoor 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 20 42 23
Overworld Fence Gate 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 15 42 23
Overworld Wooden Fence 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 36 42 23
Ladder 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 51 37
(~51.43)
42 23 [Java Edition only]
Crafting Table 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 15 42 23
Cartography Table 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 15 42 23
Fletching Table 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 15 42 23
Smithing Table 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 15 42 23
Loom 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 30 42 23
Bookshelf 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 10 42 23
Lectern 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 7.5 42 23
Composter 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 17 17
(~17.14)
42 23
Chest 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 7.5 42 23
Trapped Chest 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 67
(~6.86)
42 23
Barrel 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 15 42 23 [Bedrock Edition only]
Barrel 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 47
(~8.57)
42 23 [Java Edition only]
Daylight Detector 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 40 42 23
Jukebox 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 7.5 42 23
Note Block 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 7.5 42 23
Any Mushroom Block 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 None used 42 23 [Bedrock Edition only]
Any Banner 15
300 ticks
1.5 24 120 42 23
Crossbow 15
300 ticks
1.5 1.5 26 23 42 23 [Java Edition only]
Crossbow 10
200 ticks
1 1 17 79
(17.7)
64 [Bedrock Edition only]
Bow 15
300 ticks
1.5 1.5 40 42 23 [Java Edition only]
Bow 10
200 ticks
1 1 26 23 64 [Bedrock Edition only]
Fishing Rod 15
300 ticks
1.5 1.5 40 42 23
Overworld Wooden Door 10
200 ticks
1 64 20 64
Overworld Sign 10
200 ticks
1 16 18 613
(~18.46)
64
Wooden Pickaxe 10
200 ticks
1 1 10 64
Wooden Shovel 10
200 ticks
1 1 20 64
Wooden Hoe 10
200 ticks
1 1 13 13 64
Wooden Axe 10
200 ticks
1 1 10 64
Wooden Sword 10
200 ticks
1 1 16 64
Bowl 10
200 ticks
1 64 53 13 64 [Bedrock Edition only]
Bowl 5
100 ticks
0.5 32 26 23 128 [Java Edition only]
Any Sapling 5
100 ticks
0.5 32 None used 128
Stick 5
100 ticks
0.5 32 40 128
Azalea 5
100 ticks
0.5 32 None used 128
Any Wool 5
100 ticks
0.5 32 None used 128 [Java Edition only]
Any Carpet 3.35
67 ticks
0.335 21.44 None used 191 367
(~191.04)
[Java Edition only]
Bamboo 2.5
50 ticks
0.25 16 None used 256
Gold Nugget[note 5] 1
20 ticks
0.1 6.4 None used 640 [Bedrock Edition only]
Iron Nugget[note 5] 1
20 ticks
0.1 6.4 None used 640 [Bedrock Edition only]
Nether Brick[note 5] 1
20 ticks
0.1 6.4 None used 640 [Bedrock Edition only]
  1. All times given are for fuel burned in a furnace. When burned in a blast furnace or smoker, fuel is burned twice as fast but produces the same number of items.
  2. Items in red are not stackable, items in yellow only stack up to 16.
  3. Calculated as the burning time divided by the number of logs used to make one fuel. Items in red are not made entirely of wood.
  4. When using planks to smelt logs to charcoal. However, value is instead 69 737 (~69.19) if using charcoal to smelt logs, assuming a plank or something of equal value is used to make the initial charcoal (640 seconds / 9.25 logs). In the Bedrock version, if a wooden slab is used to make the first charcoal, then the value is 70 1073 (~70.14) (640 / 9.125). If non-wood fuel is used to make the initial charcoal, the value is instead 71 19 (~71.11) (640 / 9). If charcoal is continually used to make more charcoal, then regardless of the initial fuel source, the average value approaches approach 71 19 (~71.11) as more is made.
  5. a b c The ability to use nether bricks or gold or iron nuggets as fuel is due to a bug; see MCPE-114216.

Hopper automation[]

Automated furnace

The smelting process can be automated with hoppers on the top and bottom of the furnace. For larger smelting jobs, a third hopper on the side of the furnace can feed in fuel and, in case of lava being used as fuel, any empty buckets come out of the bottom hopper. This automatically feeds and empties the furnace so that different materials can be smelted in the same batch with no loss.

Whenever a hopper or minecart with hopper removes items from a furnace, any experience earned from cooking or smelting the removed items is saved in the furnace and awarded to the next player who manually removes an item from the furnace's output slot. This saved experience is in addition to that earned for the manually removed item(s).

Achievements[]

Icon Achievement In-game description Actual requirements (if different) Gamerscore earned Trophy type (PS4)
PS4 Other platforms
Acquire HardwareSmelt iron ore in the furnace.Pick up an iron ingot from a furnace output.15GBronze
Delicious FishCatch and cook a fish!Pick up a cooked cod after cooking it in a Furnace, Smoker, Campfire, or Soul Campfire. Doesn't work if the block used is hooked up to a hopper, as the player is not getting the item directly from the output.15GSilver
Pork ChopCook and eat a pork chop.10GBronze
Renewable EnergySmelt wood trunks using charcoal to make more charcoal.Smelt a wooden log with charcoal as the fuel.10GBronze
Rabbit SeasonCook and Eat Rabbit Meat15GBronze
Dry SpellDry a sponge in a furnace15GBronze
Super FuelPower a Furnace with Lava20GBronze

Advancements[]

Icon Advancement In-game description Parent Actual requirements (if different) Resource location
Advancement-plain-raw.pngAcquire Hardware
Smelt an iron ingot Getting an UpgradeHave an iron ingot in your inventory.story/smelt_iron

History[]

Java Edition Indev
0.3120100129Flint and steel can now be used to smelt ores.[1]
20100219Furnaces have been added to replace the cooking/smelting function of flint and steel.
20100223The first smeltable item has been added, cobblestone, which can be smelted into stone.
Java Edition
1.3.112w18aWooden tools now work in furnaces as one full furnace use.
12w22aSmelting various ores in furnaces now reward players with experience points.
When using lava for fuel, the player can now get the bucket back.
1.814w04aWhen a furnace runs out of fuel, the smelting progress now rewinds at double speed.
1.1318w06aThe smelting GUI now includes a recipe tab, which allows players to know how to smelt previously-smelted items, automatically fill in the item to be smelted and filter out the recipes to what they can make from their inventory.
Custom recipes are now loaded from data packs in data/(namespace)/recipes/(name).json.
Turning off the vanilla data pack now also removes all recipes.
18w07aDried kelp blocks have been added as a new fuel.
1.1418w43aAdded bamboo, which can now be used as a fuel.
Dead Bushes can now be used as a fuel, smelting .5 items.
18w45aAdded scaffolding, which can now be used as a fuel.
18w50aOres can now be smelted using a blast furnace and food using a smoker.
19w02aItems can now be smelted using a campfire.
1.1519w37aBoats used as fuel now smelt 6 items instead of 1.
Pre-release 1Scaffolding used as fuel now smelts 2 items instead of 0.25.
Pocket Edition Alpha
v0.3.2Furnaces have been added, which means that every available block and item can now be gathered, crafted or smelted into (no more unlimited items).
v0.8.0?Wooden tools can now be used as fuel.
Lava buckets can now be placed to smelt items (100 items).
v0.11.0build 1Added boats and fishing rods, which can now be used as fuel.
v0.12.1build 1Added blaze rods, which can now be used as fuel.
v0.13.0build 1Added note blocks and daylight sensors, which can now be used as fuel.
v0.16.0?The furnace's interface has been changed.
Pocket Edition
1.0.0alpha 0.17.0.1Added new furnace UI for classic UI.
Bedrock Edition
1.2.0beta 1.2.0.2Added jukeboxes and banners, which can now be used as fuel.
1.4.0beta 1.2.13.8Added stripped logs, which can now be used as fuel.
beta 1.2.14.2Added dried kelp blocks, which can now be used as fuel.
1.8.0beta 1.8.0.8Added bamboo and scaffolding, which can now be used as fuel.
1.10.0beta 1.10.0.3Dead bush can now be used as fuel.
1.11.0beta 1.11.0.1Items can now be smelted using a campfire.
Signs can now be used as fuel.
Ores can now be smelted using a blast furnace and food using a smoker.
New Nintendo 3DS Edition
1.1.06Smelting various ores in furnaces now rewards players with experience points.

Trivia[]

  • A wooden tool burns the same regardless of its remaining durability. A used-up tool is just as effective as fuel as a new tool.
  • "Smelting" is a broad term in the context of Minecraft while in the real world, smelting has a more precise definition.[2]

See also[]

References[]

  1. "Crafting and Mining in Minecraft"– Nizzotch on YouTube, January 29, 2010
  2. "Block of the Week: Furnace" – Minecraft.net, September 15, 2017
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