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Mountains are eleven cold and snowy and warm biomes divided into two subcategories: extreme hills and mountain peaks[upcoming: JE 1.18 & BE 1.18.0]. The extreme hills subcategory contains five biome variants, with one (two ‌in Java Edition 1.18 and Bedrock Edition 1.18.0[upcoming]) being unused, and the mountain peaks subcategory contains six biome variants.

Description[]

Mountain biomes feature steep terrain and reach higher elevations than any other biome in the game other than the shattered savanna biomes. The grass and leaves are an aqua color. The surface can be grassy, rocky and gravelly, snowy or icy, with many blobs and veins of ores and those are the only biomes where emerald ore is found. The cliffs of the common extreme hills biome generally peak at roughly Y-level 140, but peaks go higher, so they could be a good place to find iron ore abundantly. There are stony areas below the sea level where infested blocks with silverfish can be generated, even below the deepslate layer.

Mountain biomes have some unusual features and formations compared to other biomes due to the terrain generation algorithm. Floating blocks and even small floating islands are common, as are overhangs and large waterfalls (occasionally, even springs and lavafalls). This can create some impressive views at times. These oddities may be magnified in shattered savannas.

Survival in mountain biomes can be challenging to beginners, due to the heights often risking heavy fall damage and higher elevations bringing snow and ice, but can be fairly easy once the player has acclimated to the area and found or made a flat-enough space for shelter. Llamas can also serve as useful pack animals when tamed. Water must be protected by light or a roof to prevent it from freezing when above the snowfall line, however, and the player must be aware of their surroundings to avoid falling off steep cliffs, especially when fighting hostile mobs. Care should also be taken when mining in mountain biomes, due to infested stone occasionally generating; the player might get swarmed with silverfish if they're not prepared.

Water buckets can be used to climb mountains, by dumping the water onto a higher ledge and climbing up to the ledge. The player can safely collect the water into the bucket and repeat the procedure until the player is on top of the mountain. Water can also be used to collect snowballs from the mountains if snow generates there.

Extreme hills[]

These mountainous biomes mostly generate within clusters of temperate and cold biomes, commonly found next to taiga, forest, and plains. Oak trees occasionally generate in place of some spruce trees.

A standard extreme hills biome.

The exact height at which rain ends and snow starts is randomized between Y levels 91 and 98. More specifically, the lowest possible snow layer should form at Y level 91, and the lowest height at which snow always forms is Y level 98. Llamas can spawn here.

Extreme Hills[]

Extreme Hills
Mountains.png
Type

Cold

Rarity

Common‌[until JE 1.18]
Uncommon‌[upcoming: JE 1.18]

Temperature

0.2

Blocks

Grass Block
Oak Log[JE only]
Oak Leaves[JE only]
Spruce Log[JE only]
Spruce Leaves[JE only]
Snow
Stone
Emerald Ore
Coal Ore
Iron Ore
Infested Stone

The extreme hills biome is the normal mountain variant. This biome features the standard stony and grassy terrain, with a bit of tall grass and sporadically generated oak and spruce trees. As the climate is cold, rainfall changes to snowfall above approximately Y-level 92 where stacked snow layers form on blocks above that point, along with water freezing into ice. They are one of the two places where llamas can spawn, the other place being savanna biomes.

In Java Edition :

MobSpawn chanceGroup size
Passive category
Sheep12454
Pig10454
Chicken10454
Cow8454
Llama5454–6
Hostile category
Spider1005154
Zombie955154
Zombie villager55151
Skeleton1005154
Creeper1005154
Slime[note 1]1005154
Enderman105151–4
Witch55151
Ambient category
Bat10108
  1. Only on slime chunks

In Bedrock Edition :

MobSpawn chanceGroup size
Passive category
Goat20832–3
Sheep12832–3
Pig10831–3
Chicken10832–4
Glow Squid[note 1]10832–4
Cow8832–3
Axolotl[note 2]8831–4
Llama5834–6
Hostile category
Spider1004951
Zombie954952–4
Zombie villager54952–4
Skeleton804951–2
Creeper1004951
Slime[note 3]1004951
Enderman104951–2
Witch54951
Ambient category
Bat10102
  1. Only underwater and underground.
  2. Only underwater and underground.
  3. Only on slime chunks.

Wooded Mountains[]

Wooded Mountains
Wooded Mountains.png
Type

Cold

Rarity

Common‌[until JE 1.18]
Uncommon‌[upcoming: JE 1.18]

Temperature

0.2

Blocks

Grass Block
Oak Log
Oak Leaves
Spruce Log
Spruce Leaves
Snow
Stone
Emerald Ore
Coal Ore
Iron Ore
Infested Stone

The wooded mountains generate groves of oak and spruce trees. This variant does not feature the stony terrain so that the tall grass and trees can generate more often. This biome also generates standalone as a thick separation when a desert is bordering a snowy tundra or snowy taiga biome.

While the increased wood supply can be useful, the risk of fatal fall damage still exists, especially if this variant generates on the edge of a mountain range and border a river or another low-elevation biome.

Wooded mountains use the same mob spawning chances as extreme hills.

Gravelly Hills[]

Gravelly Hills
Gravelly Mountains.png
Type

Cold

Rarity

Uncommon

Temperature

0.2

Blocks

Gravel
Grass Block
Snow
Stone
Emerald Ore
Coal Ore
Iron Ore
Infested Stone

The rare gravelly hills variant replaces the top few layers of stone and grass with gravel across its landscape.

Due to the gravel replacing most of the grass, trees generate far less often, making this variant relatively barren.

Players should be careful when surfacing from underground in this biome, as the top layers of gravel can pose a suffocation hazard.

Gravelly mountains use the same mob spawning chances as extreme hills.

Gravelly Mountains+[]

Gravelly Mountains+
Gravelly Mountains Plus.png
Type

Cold

Rarity

Uncommon‌[BE only][until JE 1.18]
N/A‌[JE only][upcoming: JE 1.18]

Temperature

0.2

Blocks

Gravel
Grass Block
Snow
Stone
Emerald Ore
Coal Ore
Iron Ore
Infested Stone

Gravelly mountains+, also referred to as modified gravelly mountains in code, is a rare variant of the wooded mountains biome that has the exact same features as the regular gravelly mountains, making this biome almost indistinct from the former.[1] The peaks are still covered in gravel, large valleys often generate among the peaks and the trees are still quite sparse in this biome, making this a difficult biome for survival, due to its barrenness being combined with steep terrain. Differently however, it can rarely generate standalone as a thick separation when a desert lakes biome is bordering a snowy taiga or tundra. It will be removed in Java Edition 1.18. Gravelly mountains+ use the same mob spawning chances as extreme hills.

Unused Extreme Hills[]

Mountain Edge[]

The mountain edge variant is a currently unused variant. Similarly to the jungle edge biome, it was a technical biome intended to provide a smooth transition from other biomes to the mountains. It is similar to the taiga hills biome, but with a few oak trees. The terrain was gentler and not as steep as the normal mountains, with oak and spruce trees growing. This biome was phased out in the Java Edition 1.7.2 update development and does not generates naturally, though can still be seen using the Buffet world option‌[Java Edition only] or addons.‌[Bedrock Edition only]

Mountain edges use the same mob spawning chances as extreme hills.

Mountain Peaks[]

Crafting Table JE4 BE3.png
This section describes content that may be included in Java Edition. 
This content has appeared in Java Edition 1.18 development versions, but the full update containing it has not been released yet.
Blue Beaker BE1.png
This section contains content on features that are part of Experimental Gameplay in Bedrock Edition. 
These features may be properly added in a future update, but requires the "Caves & Cliffs" option toggled to be enabled in the current version.

There are six additional height-dependent sub-biomes which make up an uncommon and cliffy mountains biome, where goats spawn in some of them. These several biomes can occupy the same X and Z coordinates, varying only along the Y level, and are cold (in the case of meadows) or snow-covered. Coal, iron, and emerald ores can be found at higher altitude than other biomes. These new mountains generate with either plains, deserts, forests, jungles, any oceans, or snowy tundra as base biomes, which result being connected or even completely surrounded by those biomes. In Java Edition, they can generate pillager outposts, with the meadow also being able to generate villages.

Meadow[]

The meadow features an almost flat field filled with patches of flowers and turquoise-green grass or double tall grass, where sheep, donkey, and rabbits spawn. All small flowers generate except blue orchids, tulips, lilies of the valley, or wither roses. Oak and birch trees, pillager outposts, and villages can generate in this biome. Those trees often have bee nests. Meadow villages are plains villages. [2]

Grove[]

The grove creates a forest of spruce trees on the lower slopes of a mountain, and usually generates when the mountain is surrounded by a forested biome, such as a dark forest or a taiga. Rabbits spawn in this biome even though grass blocks are not going to generate. The water will freeze into ice and the surface is also covered with snow, snow blocks with dirt underneath, and a lot of powder snow.

Snowy Slopes[]

Snowy Slopes
Snowy Slopes.png
Type

Snowy

Rarity

Uncommon

Temperature

-0.3

Structures

Pillager Outpost

Blocks

Snow
Snow Block
Powder Snow
Stone
Emerald Ore
Coal Ore
Iron Ore
Infested Stone

The snowy slopes feature steep terrain leading up to the peak biomes and is covered in snow, three layers of snow blocks and powder snow, with the north and east sides of the mountains having cliffs made out of stone.[verify] Goats spawn in this biome alongside rabbits.

Lofty Peaks[]

Lofty Peaks
Lofty Peaks.png
Type

Snowy

Rarity

Uncommon

Temperature

-0.7

Structures

Pillager Outpost

Blocks

Snow
Snow Block
Stone
Ice
Emerald Ore
Coal Ore
Iron Ore
Infested Stone

The lofty peaks is one of the three peak biomes, which will only generate on the top of the mountains if they are tall enough to generate it, and may rarely generate jagged peaks that can reach y=256. Which peaks biome generates depends on temperature, with this biome usually generating in areas surrounded temperate biomes such as plains, forests, dark forests, and birch forests. It is covered by a single layer of snow blocks with stone underneath. Only goats spawn in this biome.

Snowcapped Peaks[]

Snow Capped Peaks
Snow Capped Peaks.png
Type

Snowy

Rarity

Uncommon

Temperature

-0.7

Structures

Pillager Outpost

Blocks

Snow
Stone
Snow Block
Ice
Packed Ice
Emerald Ore
Coal Ore
Iron Ore
Infested Stone

The snowcapped peaks is the coldest of the three peak biomes, with this one generating in areas surrounded by colder biomes such as taigas and snowy tundras, but it can sometimes also generate near temperate biomes. This biome is also less likely to generate in mountains with jagged peaks compared to the other two peak biomes. It is covered by snow, snow blocks, ice and glaciers of packed ice. Goats can spawn in this biome.

Stony Peaks[]

The stony peaks is the warmest of the three highest mountain biomes, with this biome generating when a mountain peak is surrounded warmer biomes such as savannas, and jungles and it will not generate snowy slopes or groves in the lower areas of the mountain, unless there's a colder biome near the mountain. It is mostly covered by stone with layers of gravel, andesite, granite, and calcite. The grass in this biome has a light green color slightly more vibrant than the plains grass color, reminding the foliage tint of a forest. Only goats spawn in this biome.

Data values[]

ID[]

Java Edition:

NameResource locationTranslation key
Extreme Hillsmountainsbiome.minecraft.mountains
Wooded Mountainswooded_mountainsbiome.minecraft.wooded_mountains
Gravelly Hillsgravelly_mountainsbiome.minecraft.gravelly_mountains
Gravelly Mountains+modified_gravelly_mountainsbiome.minecraft.modified_gravelly_mountains
Mountain Edgemountain_edgebiome.minecraft.mountain_edge
minecraft:meadowmeadowbiome.minecraft.meadow
minecraft:grovegrovebiome.minecraft.grove
minecraft:snowy_slopessnowy_slopesbiome.minecraft.snowy_slopes
minecraft:lofty_peakslofty_peaksbiome.minecraft.lofty_peaks
minecraft:snowcapped_peakssnowcapped_peaksbiome.minecraft.snowcapped_peaks
minecraft:stony_peaksstony_peaksbiome.minecraft.stony_peaks

Bedrock Edition:

NameResource locationNumeric ID
[No displayed name]extreme_hills3
[No displayed name]extreme_hills_plus_trees34
[No displayed name]extreme_hills_mutated131
[No displayed name]extreme_hills_plus_trees_mutated162
[No displayed name]extreme_hills_edge20
[No displayed name]mountain_meadow?
[No displayed name]mountain_grove?
[No displayed name]snowy_slopes?
[No displayed name]lofty_peaks?
[No displayed name]snow_capped_peaks?
[No displayed name]stony_peaks?

History[]

Java Edition pre-Classic
rd-20090515Random terrain generation introduced, including mountains.
Several different terrain generators were used throughout following versions. however, it was not until the world generator used in several versions of infdev until early alpha that it included mountains.
At this time mountians were considered structures and randomly generated as part of the world generation algorithm.
Java Edition Beta
1.8Pre-releaseMountains are now considered their own biome, Extreme Hills.
Java Edition
1.112w01aAdded Extreme Hills Edge biome. it was implemented as a smooth transition between the unpredictable extreme hills terrain and the largely flat terrain of the various other biomes in this world generator.
1.7.213w36aExtreme Hills variants added, along with many other biomes.
The Extreme Hills Edge biome no longer generates naturally and include spruce trees and a bit of stony patches.
Spruce trees and snow layers now generate in Extreme Hills.
The surface now contains large stone, dirt and gravel patches.
1.1318w16a"Extreme Hills M" has been renamed to "Mutated Extreme Hills".
"Extreme Hills+ M" has been renamed to "Mutated Extreme Hills+".
18w19a"Extreme Hills" has been renamed to "Mountains".
"Extreme Hills Edge" has been renamed to "Mountain Edge".
"Extreme Hills+" has been renamed to "Wooded Mountains".
"Mutated Extreme Hills" has been renamed to "Gravelly Mountains".
"Mutated Extreme Hills+" has been renamed to "Gravelly Mountains+".
pre5The ID extreme_hills has been changed to mountains.
The ID smaller_extreme_hills has been changed to mountain_edge.
The ID extreme_hills_with_trees has been changed to wooded_mountains.
The ID mutated_extreme_hills has been changed to gravelly_mountains.
The ID mutated_extreme_hills_with_trees has been changed to modified_gravelly_mountains.
September 28, 2019During MINECON Live 2019, the mountains won the community biome vote; improved terrain generation, powder snow, and goats will be added.
October 3, 2020The Caves & Cliffs update was announced at Minecraft Live 2020, showing a sneak peek at goats and the new mountain generation.
Upcoming Java Edition
5 March 2021It is announced that the biome renamed to Mountains in 1.13 may be renamed back to Extreme Hills.
1.18Experimental Snapshot 1Added the meadow, grove, snowy slopes, lofty peaks and snowcapped peaks biomes.
Removed gravelly mountains+.
experimental snapshot 2Old "mountains" have been renamed back to "extreme hills", and "gravelly mountains" into "gravelly hills".
Blue orchids no longer spawn in mountain meadows.
Oaks and Birches can now have a small chance of generating in mountain meadows, oftentimes with a bee nest on them.
Infested stone and emerald ore now generate in the new mountain biomes.
experimental snapshot 3Added the stony peaks biome.
Mountain meadows and peaks are less likely to generate in flat, low elevation areas.
Snow capped peaks and snowy slopes no longer generate with dirt under snow layer.
Pillager outposts now generate in all the new mountain biomes.
Villages now generate in mountain meadows.
Goats now spawn in the new mountain biomes.
experimental snapshot 4Snowy slopes no longer generate with dirt under the surface layer.
Increased the extremity of terrain in extreme hills.
Strips of andesite, calcite and granite now generate in stony peaks.
experimental snapshot 5Mountain tops are now more jagged and pointy.
Mountain areas and peak biomes now are slightly larger on average.
Raised the average mountain height.
Fixed an unintentional change from snapshot 4 that made mountains lower and smoother.
experimental snapshot 6Groves and snowy slopes are less likely to generate on mountain peaks.
Groves and snowy slopes start generating lower down in cold areas and higher up in warmer areas.
Pocket Edition Alpha
v0.1.0Added biomes, with small cliffs generating within them.
v0.9.0build 1Added a proper Extreme Hills biome, along with many other biomes.
Only pine trees now generate (not oak trees as well) in Extreme Hills. The trees are found only in the wooded variant.
v0.9.5Added Extreme Hills+ variant.
v0.11.0build 1Added Extreme Hills M and Extreme Hills+ M variants.
build 10The amount of gravel in Extreme Hills M biomes has been increased.
Pocket Edition
Bedrock Edition
1.2.0?Added snow layers to Extreme Hills.
Caves & Cliffs (experimental)beta 1.16.200.52Added goats, which currently spawn in Extreme Hills as a placeholder.
beta 1.16.220.50Added the Mountain biome variants: Mountain Meadow, Mountain Grove, Snowy Slopes, Lofty Peaks, and Snow Capped Peaks.
Goats no longer spawn in the Extreme Hills biome.
Goats now spawn in the Snowy Slopes biome.
?The terrain of the new mountains is now cut off at Y=256.
1.17.10releaseThe new mountains are now available in the full release behind experimental gameplay toggle.
Upcoming Bedrock Edition
1.17.20beta 1.17.20.22Goats now only spawn in Mountain Meadow biome.
beta 1.17.20.23Hostile mobs can now spawn in the new mountain and cave biomes.
Legacy Console Edition
TU5CU1 1.00 Patch 11.0.1Added Extreme Hills biome.
TU31CU19 1.22 Patch 3Added Extreme Hills variant biomes.

Issues[]

Issues relating to "Mountains" are maintained on the bug tracker. Report issues there.

Gallery[]

Extreme hills[]

Peaks[]

See also[]

References[]

  1. MC-188096 – Gravelly Mountains+ is no different than Gravelly Mountains
  2. https://imgur.com/gallery/b0l38fg
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