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This article is about the biome. For the structure, see Terrain features § Mountain.

A mountains biome.

Split-arrows.svg
It has been suggested that this page be split into Mountains and Extreme Hills. [discuss]
If this split may potentially be controversial, do not split until a consensus has been reached.
Reason: Differentiate between the five new 1.18+ mountain biomes and the other older mountains biomes

Mountains are common cold and snowy biomes. There are four (nine ‌[upcoming: JE 1.18 & BE 1.18.0]) used variants and one (two ‌[upcoming: JE 1.18]) unused variant in the biome family.

Description[]

Mountain biomes feature steep terrain and reach higher elevations than any other biome in the game other than the shattered savanna biomes. The surface is made of grass block, stone, ores and gravel. The standard mountains biome generally peaks at roughly Y-level 140. As the climate is cold, rainfall changes to snowfall above approximately Y-level 92 where stacked snow layers form on blocks above that point, along with water freezing into ice. The grass and leaves are an aqua color, just like those in snowy tundra biomes or taiga biomes. Llamas and goats may spawn in mountain biomes; they are the only places where goats can spawn and one of two places llamas can spawn, the other place being savanna biomes. Additionally, emerald ore exclusively generates in mountain biomes and infested stone patches generate below sea level.

The exact height at which rain ends and snow starts is randomized between Y levels 91 and 98. More specifically, the lowest possible snow layer should form at Y level 91, and the lowest height at which snow always forms is Y level 98.

Mountain biomes have some unusual features and formations compared to other biomes due to the terrain generation algorithm.

Floating blocks and even small floating islands are common, as are overhangs and large waterfalls (occasionally, even lavafalls). This can create some impressive views at times. These oddities are magnified in shattered savannas.

Survival in mountain biomes can be challenging to beginners, due to the heights often risking heavy fall damage and higher elevations bringing snow and ice, but can be fairly easy once the player has acclimated to the area and found or made a flat-enough space for shelter. Llamas can also serve as useful pack animals when tamed. Water must be protected by light or a roof to prevent it from freezing when above the snowfall line, however, and the player must be aware of their surroundings to avoid falling off steep cliffs, especially when fighting hostile mobs. Care should also be taken when mining in mountain biomes, due to infested stone occasionally generating; the player might get swarmed with silverfish if they're not prepared.

Water buckets can be used to climb mountains, by dumping the water onto a higher ledge and climbing up to the ledge. The player can safely collect the water into the bucket and repeat the procedure until the player is on top of the mountain. Water can also be used to collect snowballs from the mountains if snow generates there.

Mountain biomes generate within clusters of lush and cold biomes, commonly found next to taiga, forest, or plains biomes. Oak trees occasionally generate in place of some spruce trees.

Variants[]

There are a total of five (ten ‌[upcoming: JE 1.18 & BE 1.18.0]) mountain variant biomes, including one whose generation has been discontinued in new worlds.

Extreme Hills[]

Mountains
Mountains.png
Type

Cold

Rarity

Common

Temperature

0.2

Blocks

Grass Block
Oak Log[JE only]
Oak Leaves[JE only]
Spruce Log[JE only]
Spruce Leaves[JE only]
Snow
Stone
Emerald Ore
Coal Ore
Iron Ore
Infested Stone

The mountains[until JE 1.18] or extreme hills[upcoming: JE 1.18] biome is the normal mountain variant. This biome features the standard stony and grassy terrain, with a bit of tall grass (and sporadically generated oak and spruce trees[JE only]).

Llamas can spawn here, and silverfish-infested blocks and emerald ore generate naturally.

In Java Edition :

MobSpawn chanceGroup size
Passive category
Sheep12454
Pig10454
Chicken10454
Cow8454
Llama5454–6
Hostile category
Spider1005154
Zombie955154
Zombie villager55151
Skeleton1005154
Creeper1005154
Slime[note 1]1005154
Enderman105151–4
Witch55151
Ambient category
Bat10108
  1. Only on slime chunks

In Bedrock Edition :

MobSpawn chanceGroup size
Passive category
Goat20832–3
Sheep12832–3
Pig10831–3
Chicken10832–4
Glow Squid[note 1]10832–4
Cow8832–3
Axolotl[note 2]8831–4
Llama5834–6
Hostile category
Spider1004951
Zombie954952–4
Zombie villager54952–4
Skeleton804951–2
Creeper1004951
Slime[note 3]1004951
Enderman104951–2
Witch54951
Ambient category
Bat10102
  1. Only underwater and underground.
  2. Only underwater and underground.
  3. Only on slime chunks.


Wooded Mountains[]

The wooded mountains generate groves of oak and spruce trees. This variant does not feature the stony terrain so that the trees can generate. This biome also generates standalone as a thick separation when a desert is bordering a snowy biome.

While the increased wood supply can be useful, the risk of fatal fall damage still exists, especially if this variant generates on the edge of a mountain range and border a river or another low-elevation biome.

Wooded mountains use the same mob spawning chances as extreme hills.

Gravelly Hills[]

Gravelly Mountains
Gravelly Mountains.png
Type

Cold

Rarity

Uncommon

Temperature

0.2

Blocks

Gravel
Grass Block
Snow
Stone
Emerald Ore
Coal Ore
Iron Ore
Infested Stone

The rare gravelly mountains[until JE 1.18] or gravelly hills[upcoming: JE 1.18] variant replaces the top few layers of stone and grass with gravel across its landscape.

Due to the gravel replacing most of the grass, trees generate far less often, making this variant relatively barren. Players should be careful when surfacing from underground in this biome, as the top layers of gravel can pose a suffocation hazard.

Gravelly mountains use the same mob spawning chances as extreme hills.

Gravelly Mountains+[]

Gravelly Mountains+
Gravelly Mountains Plus.png
Type

Cold

Rarity

Uncommon

Temperature

0.2

Blocks

Gravel
Grass Block
Snow
Stone
Emerald Ore
Coal Ore
Iron Ore
Infested Stone

Gravelly mountains+ (also reffered to as modified gravelly mountains in the F3 menu) is a rare variant of the wooded mountains biome that has the exact same features as the regular gravelly mountains, making this biome indistinct from the former[1]. The peaks are still covered in gravel, large valleys often generate among the peaks and the trees are still quite sparse in this biome, making this a difficult biome for survival, due to its barrenness being combined with steep terrain. Differently however, it can rarely generate standalone as a thick separation when a desert lakes biome is bordering a snowy taiga or tundra.

Gravelly mountains+ use the same mob spawning chances as extreme hills.

Mountain Edge[]

The mountain edge variant is a currently unused variant. Similarly to the jungle edge biome, it was a technical biome intended to provide a smooth transition from other biomes to the mountains. It is similar to the taiga hills biome, but with a few oak trees. The terrain was gentler and not as steep as the normal mountains, with oak and spruce trees growing. This biome was phased out in the Java Edition 1.7.2 update development and does not generates naturally, though can still be seen using the Buffet world option‌[Java Edition only] or addons.‌[Bedrock Edition only]

Mountain edges use the same mob spawning chances as extreme hills.

Upcoming[]

Crafting Table JE4 BE3.png
This section describes content that may be included in Java Edition. 
This content has appeared in Java Edition 1.18 development versions, but the full update containing it has not been released yet.
Blue Beaker BE1.png
This section contains content on features that are part of Experimental Gameplay in Bedrock Edition. 
These features may be properly added in a future update, but requires the "Caves & Cliffs" option toggled to be enabled in the current version.

There are 5 additional height-dependent sub-biomes which make up an uncommon mountains biome. These several biomes can occupy the same X and Z coordinates, varying only along the Y level, and are cold (in the case of mountain meadows) or snow-covered. Coal, iron and emerald ores can be found at higher altitude than other biomes. In Bedrock Edition, these biomes are bordered by forest or flower forest and do not generate stone shores when next to an ocean (forest will just cut to ocean instead). These new mountains generate with either plains, deserts, forests, jungles, any oceans or snowy tundras as base biomes, which result being connected or even completely surrounded by those biomes. In Java Edition, these biomes don't generate a forest or flower forest border, so they can generate from sea level altitude.

Mountain Meadow[]

Mountain Meadow
Mountain Meadows.png
Type

Cold

Rarity

Uncommon

Temperature

0.3

Structures

Pillager Outpost[JE only]
Village[JE only]

Blocks

Grass Block
Oak Log[JE only]
Oak Leaves[JE only]
Birch Log[JE only]
Birch Leaves[JE only]
Bee Nest[JE only]
Dandelion
Cornflower
Poppy[JE only]
Allium[JE only]
Oxeye Daisy[JE only]
Azure Bluet[JE only]
Sweet Berry Bush[BE only]
Snow
Stone
Emerald Ore
Coal Ore
Iron Ore
Infested Stone[JE only]

The meadow features an almost flat field filled with patches of flowers and turquiose-green grass or double tall grass, where sheep, donkey and rabbits spawn. In Bedrock Edition, sweet berry bushes, cornflowers and dandelions can be found here. In Java Edition, all small flowers generate except blue orchids, tulips, lilies of the valley or wither roses. Trees do not naturally generate here in Bedrock Edition, however, in Java Edition, oak and birch trees, pillager outposts and villages can. Those trees often have bee nests [2] Meadow villages look like plains villages. [3]

Mountain Grove[]

The grove creates a forest of spruce trees on the lower slopes of a mountain. Rabbits spawn in this biome even though grass blocks are not going to generate. The water will freeze into ice and the surface is also covered with snow, snow blocks and a lot of powder snow.

Snowy Slopes[]

Snowy Slopes
Snowy Slopes.png
Type

Cold

Rarity

Uncommon

Temperature

-0.3

Blocks

Snow
Snow Block
Powder Snow
Ice
Emerald Ore
Coal Ore
Iron Ore
Infested Stone[JE only]

The snowy slopes feature steep terrain leading up to the peak biomes and is also covered in snow, snow blocks and powder snow. Goats spawn only in this biome. On north and east sides of mountains, it can also generate with stone instead of snow blocks and dirt.

Lofty Peaks[]

Lofty Peaks
Lofty Peaks.png
Type

Cold

Rarity

Uncommon

Temperature

-0.7

Blocks

Snow
Snow Block
Stone
Ice
Emerald Ore
Coal Ore
Iron Ore
Infested Stone[JE only]

The lofty peaks is one of the two highest mountain biomes, which rarely reaches up to y=260. Whether the lofty peaks or snow capped peaks biome generates, depends on temperature. This biome will only generate on mountains that are tall enough to generate it. It is covered with snow blocks.

Snow Capped Peaks[]

Snow Capped Peaks
Snow Capped Peaks.png
Type

Cold

Rarity

Uncommon

Temperature

-0.7

Blocks

Snow
Stone
Snow Block
Ice
Packed Ice
Emerald Ore
Coal Ore
Iron Ore
Infested Stone[JE only]

The snow capped peaks is one of the two highest mountain biomes, which rarely reaches up to Y=260. Whether the lofty peaks or snow capped peaks biome generates, depends on temperature. This biome will only generate on mountains that are tall enough to generate it. It is covered by snow, ice, and patches of packed ice.

Data values[]

ID[]

Java Edition:

NameNamespaced IDTranslation key
Mountainsmountainsbiome.minecraft.mountains
Wooded Mountainswooded_mountainsbiome.minecraft.wooded_mountains
Gravelly Mountainsgravelly_mountainsbiome.minecraft.gravelly_mountains
Gravelly Mountains+modified_gravelly_mountainsbiome.minecraft.modified_gravelly_mountains
Mountain Edgemountain_edgebiome.minecraft.mountain_edge
minecraft:meadowmeadowbiome.minecraft.meadow
minecraft:grovegrovebiome.minecraft.grove
minecraft:snowy_slopessnowy_slopesbiome.minecraft.snowy_slopes
minecraft:lofty_peakslofty_peaksbiome.minecraft.lofty_peaks
minecraft:snowcapped_peakssnowcapped_peaksbiome.minecraft.snowcapped_peaks

Bedrock Edition:

NameNamespaced IDNumeric ID
[No displayed name]extreme_hills3
[No displayed name]extreme_hills_plus_trees34
[No displayed name]extreme_hills_mutated131
[No displayed name]extreme_hills_plus_trees_mutated162
[No displayed name]extreme_hills_edge20
[No displayed name]mountain_meadow?
[No displayed name]mountain_grove?
[No displayed name]snowy_slopes?
[No displayed name]lofty_peaks?
[No displayed name]snow_capped_peaks?

History[]

Java Edition pre-Classic
rd-20090515Random terrain generation introduced, including mountains.
Several different terrain generators were used throughout following versions. however, it was not until the world generator used in several versions of infdev until early alpha that it included mountains.
At this time mountians were considered structures and randomly generated as part of the world generation algorithm.
Java Edition Beta
1.8Pre-releaseMountains are now considered their own biome, Extreme Hills.
Java Edition
1.112w01aAdded Extreme Hills Edge biome. it was implemented as a smooth transition between the unpredictable extreme hills terrain and the largely flat terrain of the various other biomes in this world generator.
1.7.213w36aExtreme Hills variants added, along with many other biomes.
The Extreme Hills Edge biome no longer generates naturally.
Spruce trees and snow layers now generate in Extreme Hills.
The surface now contains large stone, dirt and gravel patches.
1.1318w16a"Extreme Hills M" has been renamed to "Mutated Extreme Hills".
"Extreme Hills+ M" has been renamed to "Mutated Extreme Hills+".
18w19a"Extreme Hills" has been renamed to "Mountains".
"Extreme Hills Edge" has been renamed to "Mountain Edge".
"Extreme Hills+" has been renamed to "Wooded Mountains".
"Mutated Extreme Hills" has been renamed to "Gravelly Mountains".
"Mutated Extreme Hills+" has been renamed to "Gravelly Mountains+".
pre5The ID extreme_hills has been changed to mountains.
The ID smaller_extreme_hills has been changed to mountain_edge.
The ID extreme_hills_with_trees has been changed to wooded_mountains.
The ID mutated_extreme_hills has been changed to gravelly_mountains.
The ID mutated_extreme_hills_with_trees has been changed to modified_gravelly_mountains.
September 28, 2019During MINECON Live 2019, the mountains won the community biome vote; improved terrain generation, powder snow, and goats will be added.
October 3, 2020The Caves & Cliffs update was announced at Minecraft Live 2020, showing a sneak peek at the new mountain generation.
Upcoming Java Edition
1.18Experimental Snapshot 1Added the meadow, grove, snowy slopes, lofty peaks and snowcapped peaks biomes.
Removed gravelly mountains+.
experimental snapshot 2"Mountains" have been renamed back to "extreme hills".
"Gravelly Mountains" have been renamed to "gravelly hills".
Sheep now spawn in mountain meadows.
Rabbits now spawn more frequently in mountain meadows.
Donkeys now spawn less frequently in mountain meadows.
Blue orchids no longer spawn in mountain meadows.
Oaks and Birches can now have a small chance of generating in mountain meadows, oftentimes with a bee nest on them.
Hostile mobs now spawn in the new mountain biomes.
Infested stone now generates in the new mountain biomes.
Emerald ore now generates in the new mountain biomes.
Pocket Edition Alpha
v0.1.0Added biomes, with small cliffs generating within them.
v0.9.0build 1Added a proper Extreme Hills biome, along with many other biomes.
Only pine trees now generate (not oak trees as well) in Extreme Hills. The trees are found only in the wooded variant.
v0.9.5Added Extreme Hills+ variant.
v0.11.0build 1Added Extreme Hills M and Extreme Hills+ M variants.
build 10The amount of gravel in Extreme Hills M biomes has been increased.
Pocket Edition
1.1.0alpha 1.1.0.0Added llamas, which can spawn in Extreme Hills.
Bedrock Edition
1.2.0?Added snow layers to Extreme Hills.
1.16.200beta 1.16.200.52Added goats, which currently spawn in Extreme Hills as a placeholder.
1.16.220beta 1.16.220.50Added the Mountain biome variants: Mountain Meadow, Mountain Grove, Snowy Slopes, Lofty Peaks, and Snow Capped Peaks.
Goats no longer spawn in the Extreme Hills biome.
Goats now spawn in the Snowy Slopes biome.
1.17.0?The terrain of the new mountains is now cut off at Y=256.
releaseThe new mountains have been made inaccessible in the full release.
1.17.10releaseThe new mountains are now available in the full release behind experimental gameplay toggle.
Legacy Console Edition
TU5CU1 1.00 Patch 11.0.1Added Extreme Hills biome.
TU31CU19 1.22 Patch 3Added Extreme Hills variant biomes.

Issues[]

Issues relating to "Mountains" are maintained on the bug tracker. Report issues there.

Gallery[]

Extreme hills[]

Mountains[]

See also[]

References[]