Minecraft Wiki

This guide is a simplified overview of all the changes in the Combat Update (Java Edition 1.9.x releases), which assumes at least some familiarity with the Bountiful Update (Java Edition 1.8.x releases).



Name Image Habitat Drops Note
Shulker ShulkerShulker Box
  • Shulkers spawn during generation of end cities.
  • Shulkers can be stood on like a block.
  • When attacking, shulkers open their shell and will shoot projectiles with the appearance of white sea urchins.
  • Shulkers do not despawn in Peaceful, but will not attack or target players.
Skeleton trap horse
Skeleton Trap Revision 1
  • Skeleton trap horses spawned from a fraction of lightning strikes during a thunderstorm.

Skeleton horse:


  • Arrow (0–2)
  • Bone (0–2)
  • 5, plus 1–3 per equipment piece (when killed by a player or tamed wolf)

Spawned Equipment

  • When a player comes within 10 blocks of the skeleton trap horse, lightning strikes it.
    • When struck, the skeleton trap horse transforms into a skeleton horseman.
    • It will also spawn 3 additional skeleton horsemen in the vicinity.
  • Each skeleton is equipped with an enchanted iron helmet and an enchanted bow, and have damage immunity for 3 seconds after spawning.
  • Skeleton trap horse despawns after 15 minutes if not triggered.


Name Image Changed
All mobs
  • Improved AI.
  • Mobs now can be pushed by other mobs.
  • Added/Changed sounds for some mobs.
  • To have chance to spawn left-handed mobs.
Creepers, Skeletons and Zombies CreeperSkeleton JE5 BE3Zombie JE2 BE1
  • They must be closer to notice players wearing the corresponding mob head.
  • Skeletons now hold their bows at their sides when not aiming.
Tamed Wolves and Cats Tamed Wolf with Red Collar JE1 BE1
Red Cat JE1 BE1Tuxedo Cat JE1 BE1Siamese Cat JE1 BE1
  • Their deaths are now announced to their owners in chat, even if unnamed.
Ender Dragon Ender Dragon
  • The ender dragon can be respawned by placing one end crystal on each side of the exit portal at any one of the three blocks of that side.
    • While respawning, beams shoot out of these crystals, that will reset all the pillars and when done they blow up and spawn the dragon.
    • Subsequent dragons will spawn new gateways up to a total of 20, but won't create new dragon eggs and will only drop 500 experience instead of the usual 12,000.
    • When the dragon is respawned, the circle of pillars and the crystals reappear.
      • Explosion particles appear on the tops of the pillars as they are being rebuilt.
  • The fight has been changed to be more similar to the one on the console edition.
  • They can no longer take damage from snowballs, eggs or fishing rods.
  • Its attacks have been changed:
    • The "charge" attack has been given a great amount of knockback.
    • Breathes fire/purple particles (called "dragon breath") while on top of the portal.
      • During the attack, it knockbacks and damages all players on all angles in the vicinity (as if hitting with other body parts).
        • Immediately charges the player right after.
      • Right-clicking the dragon's breath cloud with an empty bottle will turn in into dragon breath.
    • Shoots special projectiles at the player called "ender acid".
      • These produce a dragon breath cloud on impact and light the ground on fire.
    • While on top of the portal arrows will bounce back and be set on fire.
  • NBT tags can determine the dragon's phase.
  • Its AI was changed:
    • It sometimes returns to the center of the island to "perch" on top of the portal and shoot dragon breath.
      • It charges right after.
    • Defends the obsidian pillars more, the further the fight progresses.
    • Flies back to the portal once it gets killed, to complete its animation.
  • No longer teleports through Nether portals or End portals.
  • Can no longer ride anything.
  • Can no longer have status effects.
  • Summoning it with /summon will now stay in the same position no matter what.
    • Unlike summoning a dragon with {NoAI:1b}, it will still flap its wings.
    • These dragons do not show their boss health bar, nor do they take damage from any attack other than /kill.
Iron Golem Iron Golem JE1 BE1
  • Iron golems all have 100% knockback resistance.
Pigs Pig JE2 BE1
  • Pigs can be led and bred with potatoes and beetroots, in addition to carrots.
Rabbit Brown Rabbit Revision 1Albino Rabbit Revision 1Black Rabbit Revision 1Gold Rabbit Revision 1Salt & Pepper Rabbit Revision 1Black & White Rabbit Actual Revision 1Toast Rabbit Revision 1
  • Rabbits now only spawn in specific biomes. Even in these biomes, spawn chance is somewhat reduced.
  • When rabbits are destroying carrot crops, now reduces the growth stage by 1 level, only removing the crop block entirely if the growth stage was 0.
  • Rabbits are much smaller.
  • Killer bunnies no longer naturally spawn.
Snow Golem Snow Golem JE1 BE1Sheared Snow Golem JE1 BE1
  • Snow golems' pumpkin now can be removed with shears.
    • Will not drop pumpkin.
Zombie Villager Zombie FarmerZombie LibrarianZombie PriestZombie BlacksmithZombie ButcherZombie Nitwit
  • Zombie villagers now have different textures based on the profession and career of the original villager.
    • The profession is restored once cured but not its trades.



Name Image Obtaining Tool Required Uses
Chorus Flower Chorus Flower JE1 BE1Chorus Flower Dead JE1 BE1
  • Chorus flowers can be found on the top of the chorus trees.
  • Chorus flowers will break if the supporting block below is broken.
    • It only drops when mined directly.
  • Chorus flowers can only be planted on end stone in any dimension.
  • Chorus flowers will show a dead texture when it stops growing.
Chorus Plant
Chorus Plant JE1 BE1
  • Chorus plants can be found in the part of the chorus trees.
  • Chorus plants will break in quick succession if the supporting chorus plant below is broken.
Dragon Head
Dragon Head
  • Dragon heads generate on the bows of end ships.
  • While a player wears the dragon head and moves, the head's mouth opens and closes repeatedly.
  • When powered with redstone while dragon heads are placed on a solid block, the jaw starts to open and close.
    • They will keep the mouth position of the exact moment it was unpowered.
End Rod
End Rod JE1 BE1
Ingredients Crafting recipe
Blaze Rod +
Popped Chorus Fruit
  • End rods generate in the end cities.
  • End rods are placeable horizontally and vertically.
  • End rods used as a lighting source with the same brightness as torches.
  • Unlike torches, end rods have the hitbox.
End Stone Bricks
End Stone Bricks JE1 BE1
Ingredients Crafting recipe
End Stone
  • End stone bricks generate in the end cities.
  • End stone bricks can be used as a decorative block.
Purpur Block
Purpur Block JE1 BE1
Ingredients Crafting recipe
Popped Chorus Fruit

  • Purpur blocks generate in the end cities.
  • Purpur blocks can be used as a decorative block.
Purpur Pillar
Purpur Pillar Axis Y JE1 BE1
Ingredients Crafting recipe
Purpur Slab

  • Purpur pillars generate in the end cities.
  • Purpur pillars can be used as a decorative block.
Purpur Slab
Purpur Stairs
Purpur Slab JE1 BE1

Purpur Stairs JE1 BE1
Ingredients Crafting recipe
Purpur Block
Ingredients Crafting recipe
Purpur Block
  • Purpur slabs and stairs generate in the end cities.
  • Purpur slabs and purpur stairs can be used as decorative blocks.
End Gateway
End Gateway
Generates in End Gateway structures. N/A
  • Teleports entities to corresponding gateways elsewhere in the End.
Grass Path
Grass Path JE1 BE1
  • Can be obtained by right-clicking grass block with any tier of shovel, this will consume one durability on the shovel.
Shovel (drops dirt)
  • Grass paths can be used as a decorative block.
Beetroot Crops Beetroots Age 0 JE1Beetroots Age 1 JE1Beetroots Age 2 JE1Beetroots Age 3 JE1
  • Created by planting beetroot seeds on farmland.
  • Drops multiple beetroots and beetroot seeds when fully grown.
Frosted Ice Frosted IceFrosted Ice 1Frosted Ice 2Frosted Ice 3
  • Created by walking on water using frost walker boots.
  • Breaks after a few seconds, allowing players to create temporarily bridges across water.
Chain Command Block and Repeating Command Block Chain Command Block JE2 BE1

Repeating Command Block JE2 BE1
  • Obtainable through commands.
  • While activated, chain command blocks run a command when an adjacent command block runs a command.
  • While activated, repeating command blocks run a command every tick.
Structure Block Structure Block JE1Structure Block Save JE1Structure Block Load JE1Structure Block Corner JE1Structure Block Data JE1
  • Obtainable through commands.
  • Can be used to save and load structures.


Name Changes
All blocks
  • Added/Changed sounds for some blocks.
  • Renaming an item does not increase the repair cost for a future repair/rename anymore.
  • Beacons will now drop the items placed in them and will keep the item in the beacon after reloading the world.
  • Beacons will drop any contained item when exiting the GUI.
  • Effect duration depends on pyramid levels, 9 seconds plus 2 seconds per level (formerly a constant 9 seconds).
  • Beacons now immediately activate when placed on valid pyramids.
Brewing Stand
  • Brewing stands now require blaze powder to be able to use.
    • One piece of blaze powder can add 20 fuels in the brewing stand.
    • It removes 1 from fuel every time the player puts an ingredient in.
  • Cactus will break if lava is adjacent.
  • Cactus will break if water or lava is in the block above.
  • Buckets now can be filled from a full cauldron.
  • Cobweb will now drop itself when cut with shears.
Daylight Sensor
  • Daylight sensors no longer emit a signal at night when sufficiently shaded.
Dead Bush
  • Dead bushes now drop 0–2 sticks when broken.
  • Doors are now placed facing left/right depending on which half of the block the player clicks on unless neighboring doors cause them to place a certain way.
Glass Pane and Iron Bars
  • Glass panes or iron bars without any connecting blocks are now 2x2 pixels in footprint.
Hay Bale
  • Falling onto a hay bale does only 20% of normal fall damage.
  • Trapdoors no longer require supporting blocks.
  • An open trapdoor may be climbed like a ladder if it is directly above a ladder and on the same side of the block.



Name Image Obtaining Uses
Beetroot JE1 BE1

Beetroots can be harvested from beetroot crops.

  • Beetroots give 1 (🍗) hunger points when eaten.
  • Beetroots can be used to craft beetroot soup.
  • Beetroots can also be used to craft rose red dye.
Beetroot Soup
Beetroot Soup JE1 BE1
Ingredients Crafting recipe
Beetroot +

  • Beetroot soup give 6 (🍗🍗🍗) hunger points when eaten.
Beetroot Seeds
Beetroot Seeds JE1 BE1

Beetroot seeds can be harvested from beetroot crops. Additionally beetroot seeds can be found in villages or loot chests.

  • Beetroot seeds are used to grow beetroots.
Chorus Fruit
Chorus Fruit JE1 BE1

Chorus fruits can be obtained by breaking chorus plants.

  • Chorus fruits give 4 (🍗🍗) hunger points when eaten.
  • Chorus fruits will teleport entity to a random nearby location when eaten, like an enderman.
  • Chorus fruits can be eaten even if the player's hunger bar is full, similar to golden apples.
  • Chorus fruits can be cooked in the furnace to obtain popped chorus fruits.
Dragon's Breath
Dragon's Breath JE1 BE1

The dragon's breath can be obtained by scooping up the ender dragon's breath attack or dragon fireball clouds in an empty bottle.

  • The dragon's breath can be used to brew lingering potions with a splash potion.
Elytra (item) JE1 BE1
Broken Elytra (item) JE1 BE1

Elytra can be found on end ships within an item frame.

  • Players can enter to glide when equipped in the "chestplate" slot.
  • Elytra take damage at a rate of 1/s when working.
  • When durability reaches 1, the elytra stop working until they are repaired. Elytra will never fully break.
  • The elytra texture defaults to the cape texture if the player owns a cape.
End Crystal
End Crystal (item) JE1 BE1
Ingredients Crafting recipe
Glass +
Eye of Ender +
Ghast Tear

End Crystal
  • The item form of end crystal.
  • It will summon an end crystal when using it on bedrock or obsidian.
    • Summoned end crystals have no bottom plate, unlike normal end crystals.
Popped Chorus Fruit
Popped Chorus Fruit JE1 BE1
Ingredients Smelting recipe
Chorus Fruit +
Any fuel

  • Popped chorus fruits are no longer be edible.
  • Popped chorus fruits can be used to craft purpur blocks.
Shield JE1
Ingredients Crafting recipe
Any Planks +
Iron Ingot

  • New tool used for blocking incoming attacks.
    • If the player holds right click while being attacked, the damage inflicted is reduced, and the shield loses durability.
  • Hitting a shield with an axe has a chance to disable the shield for 5 seconds.
  • Shields can be combined with banners to transfer its pattern to it.
  • Using planks to repair shields.
Tipped Arrow
Spectral Arrow
Arrow of Luck JE1 BE1
Spectral Arrow (item) JE1
Ingredients Crafting recipe
Arrow +
Matching Lingering Potion
Ingredients Crafting recipe
Glowstone Dust +
  • New types of arrow.
  • Will imbue a potion effect when a tipped arrow hitting a mob or player.
    • Spectral arrow imbues the Glowing effect for 10 seconds.
  • For effects with duration, the duration is 18 that of the corresponding potion.
Shulker Spawn Egg
Shulker Spawn Egg JE1 BE2
  • Available in the creative inventory.
  • Can be used to spawn Shulkers.


Name Changes
All items
  • Added sounds for some items.
  • Now shows animation for variant states in the hotbar/inventory for some items.
  • Armor points count for less as the attack strength increases: each 2♥ done by the attack reduces the effective defense points by 1 (🛡), but not below 20% of the armor points.
  • Hitting a player who is blocking with a shield using an axe has a chance to disable the player's shield for 5 seconds.
  • Added spruce, birch, jungle, acacia and dark oak variants.
    • Crafted from 5 same variant planks, with the shape just as it was before.
    • The previous "Boat" is now called "Oak Boat".
  • Boats have a new model, with a pair of paddles on it.
Enchanted Golden Apple
  • Enchanted golden apples are now uncraftable.
  • Now have Regeneration II for 20 seconds (heal 16♥ × 8 in total) and Absorption IV for 2 minutes (providing 16♥ × 8 points of absorption health).
Ender Pearl
  • Ender pearls now can be thrown in creative mode.
  • Ender pearls have a cool down time every time they are used.
Glowstone Dust and Redstone
  • They can no longer be added to extended or tier-II potions respectively.
  • Shears are no longer be able to be enchanted with Silk Touch.
  • Shears now lose durability when used to break any block.
  • Cobweb will now drop itself when cut with shears.
  • Swords can no longer be used for blocking.
  • New defensive sword "sweep" attack when swinging the sword while crouching or standing.
    • Mobs near the attacker are knocked back and receive 1♥ damage.
Splash Water Bottle
  • Splash water potion extinguishes any fire block that it's thrown at, as well as a maximum of five of them in the vicinity.

Non-mob entities[]


Name Image Changed
All entities
  • Added sounds for some entities.
Arrow Arrow
  • Arrows now bounce off of creative mode players, where as before they would pass straight through.
  • Arrows now take the thrower's motion into account.
Boat Oak Boat JE2 BE1Spruce Boat JE1 BE1Birch Boat JE1 BE1Jungle Boat JE1 BE1Acacia Boat JE1 BE1Dark Oak Boat JE1 BE1
  • Boats are faster, and no longer will crash and break on the shore.
  • Using the left and right keys will now turn the boat.
    • Using the mouse will no longer turn the boat.
    • Using the mouse, the player can look fully 90 degrees to the left or the right, but not behind.
    • Holding the sprint keys no longer have any effect.
  • Boats now sink when there's water above it, instead of floating upwards.
  • The player cannot use or attack while the boat is in motion.
  • Mobs and armor stands can go into boats, with a maximum of two.
  • Riding a boat no longer subjects water-sensitive mobs to being damaged by water, and no longer protects sunlight-sensitive mobs from being damaged by sunlight.
  • Boats now come in 6 different wood type variants.
  • Projectiles now take the thrower's motion into account.



Name Image Causes Description
Glowing JE1

The Glowing received when hit by spectral arrows.

Makes entity's outline glow, even through non-transparent blocks.

Levitation JE1 BE1

The Levitation received when hit by shulker projectiles.

Makes entity involuntarily float high into the air.

Luck JE1

The Luck received by the potion of Luck.

Increases the luck attribute by 1 per level.

Bad Luck
Bad Luck JE1

The Bad Luck cannot be obtained in normal.

Decreases the luck attribute by 1 per level.



Name Obtaining Effects
Lingering Potion
Ingredients Brewing recipe
Dragon's Breath +
Any Splash Potion

  • The effect is the same as the original splash potion.
  • Thrown like a splash potion.
    • Leaves a patch of the potion particle effect on impact.
      • Entities that walk into it get the effect.
Potion of Luck

Can only be obtained in creative inventory.

Uncraftable Potion

Cannot be obtained in normal.

  • No effects.


Name Changed
Extended Potion of Poison and extended Potion of Regeneration
  • Decreased duration for these potions.
    • It has been changed to 1:30, was 2:00.
Potion of Harming
Potion of Slowness
Potion of Strength
  • Potion of Strength has been changed to 3♥♥ increase, was 130% increase.
Potion of Weakness
  • All recipes for the potion of Weakness were removed except using a water bottle.
  • Potion of Weakness has been changed to 4♥♥ decrease, was 0.5 (♥ × 14) decrease.



Name Image Generates Chests Mobs Description
Outer end island
Small End Islands
Outer end islands can generate in every direction from the main island, separated by a gap of about 1,000 blocks. No
  • Chorus trees and end cities generate here.
End gateway
End gateway JE2 BE1
A new end gateway generates near the edge of the main island each time the ender dragon is defeated. None None
  • The way to the outer islands.
  • Up to 20 gateways can be generated.
Chorus tree
Chorus Tree JE1 BE1
Chorus trees generate on the outer islands of the end. None None
  • They consist of chorus plants and chorus flowers; A chorus flower will generate at the top of each branch.
  • The player can grow a new chorus tree by planting a flower on a block of endstone.
End city
EndCityEntrance JE1 BE1
End cities generate on the outer islands of the end. Yes
  • End cities are dungeon-type structure fashioned like a branching tower.
End ship
End Ship JE1 BE1
End ship has an 80% chance of being generated with an end city. Yes
  • End ships appear to sail away from what appears to be a pier.
Igloo top Revision 1

Igloo bottom JE1 BE1
Igloos spawn randomly in Ice Plains and Cold Taiga (but not the Hills variant). Yes
  • Igloos can be a shelter for the player.
  • Some igloos have a stone brick basement.
    • A cleric villager and a cleric zombie villager always spawn in the iron bars.
    • Always spawns a splash potion of Weakness and a golden apple. It hinting the player to use these on the zombie to turn him into the villager.


Name Image Changed
All structures
Obsidian pillar Obsidian Pillar JE1 BE1
  • Obsidian pillars now generate in a circle around the exit portal.
  • Some of the shorter pillars now generate with iron bars.
Exit portal Exit portal (empty)
  • The exit portal is pre-generated, but without the dragon egg and portal blocks.
Village OakHouse
  • Farms now include beetroot crops.
Witch hut Swamp hut JE1 BE1
  • Witch huts now always spawn with a witch.



Name Description
Attack cooldown
  • A meter shows up after switching items or attacking.
  • Damage done now depends on the fullness of the meter, and attack does 20%–100% of normal damage as the meter fills.
  • Haste and Mining Fatigue will cause the meter to fill faster or slower.
Dual wielding
  • Players now can use both hands to perform different actions using the left and right mouse buttons.
    • For example, if a player has a pickaxe in their main hand and a torch in their other hand, right clicking will place the torch.
  • Added an extra inventory slot called the offhand slot.
  • Pressing F will switch whatever item is selected in the hotbar with the item in the offhand (including no item).
  • The offhand slot is displayed next to the hotbar when it's not empty (left for right-hand players and vice versa).
  • Only the main hand can be used for breaks blocks or attacks.
  • Players now can glide when equipped elytra.
  • To glide, the player must press the jump key when in mid-air, then the elytra spread apart like insect wings and the player enters a glide.
  • Player can aim their view around to turn or adjust the pitch. Losing altitude increases speed, and gaining altitude decreases speed.
    • Trying for too high a pitch reduces the player's lift.
  • Directly hitting any surface while gliding causes damage proportional to flight speed.


Name Changed
  • Overpowered
    • Description changed from "Build" to "Eat" an enchanted golden apple.
  • Damage done by tools has been rebalanced:
Tool Attack speed Attack damage Damage/Second (DPS)
Sword 1.6 4♥♥ 5♥♥♥ 6♥♥♥ 7♥♥♥♥ 4♥♥ 6.4 8 9.6 11.2 6.4
Shovel 1 2.5♥ × 1.25 3.5♥ × 1.75 4.5♥ × 2.25 5.5♥ × 2.75 2.5♥ × 1.25 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 2.5
Pickaxe 1.2 2♥ 3♥♥ 4♥♥ 5♥♥♥ 2♥ 2.4 3.6 4.8 6 2.4
Axe 0.8 0.8 0.9 1 1 7♥♥♥♥ 9♥♥♥♥♥ 9♥♥♥♥♥ 9♥♥♥♥♥ 7♥♥♥♥ 5.6 7.2 8.1 9 7
Hoe 1 2 3 4 1 1♥ 1 2 3[note 1] 4[note 1] 1
Other 4 1♥ 4[note 1]
  1. a b c Against a single target, DPS is effectively limited to 2 due to damage immunity.
  • Luck of the Sea and the Luck effect affect fishing again, and effects stack. Each point increases the weight of treasure by 2, decreases the weight of fish by 1, and decreases the weight of junk by 2.
♥ Hardcore
  • Upon death the player now can choose to respawn in spectator mode rather than the world being deleted.
Heads-up display
  • Status effect icons are now displayed on the HUD on the right hand corner.
    • They are ordered by the time of infliction from right to left.
    • Positive effects are on the top row and negative effects on the bottom row.
    • Effects that are about to run out blink.
  • Health regenerates faster when saturation is non-zero and the hunger bar is at 20.
  • Health regeneration increases exhaustion more.



Enchantment Max Level Applicable Items Notes
Mending I
  • When an item with the enchantment is held or equipped (in the main hand, offhand, or armor slots), collected experience orbs repair the item at a rate of 2 durabilities per XP instead of adding the XP to the player's total experience.
Frost Walker II
  • If moving on ground (not falling, jumping, or flying), any still water blocks with air above within a radius of 2 + level around the block being moved to will be turned into frosted ice.
    • Frosted ices cannot be obtained in normal.
    • Frosted ices naturally melt fairly quickly with light and show the breaking texture.
  • Incompatible with Depth Strider.


Name Changed
  • Lure is no longer affects the chances of catching things, only the delay.
  • Protection bonuses are now linear instead of quadratic.
  • Each Sharpness level now adds 1♥ damage to the base damage at level I and an additional 0.5 (♥ × 0.25) for each additional level, down from a flat 1.25 (♥ × 0.625) per level.
Silk Touch
  • Silk Touch can no longer be added to shears.



Name Description
  • Subtitles are mainly intended for players who are hard of hearing, deaf or play with sounds off. They can also be used for hearing quieter sounds.
    • Mobs have individualizing subtitles, for example "Creeper hisses".
    • "<" or ">" points in the direction in which the sound is coming from if the sounds are offscreen.