Instant mining is a game mechanic in which 1 block can be broken per game tick without the delay of ^{3}⁄_{10} of a second (6 ticks). Below are listed the tool tier and the Efficiency and Haste levels necessary to instantmine a block.
Without commands[]
Tool  Efficiency enchantment level Haste level 
Blocks instantly mined  Calculation 

Diamond Pickaxe  Efficiency V Haste II 

(8 + 26)× (1 + 0.4) = 47.6 which is greater than 1.5 × 30 = 45 
Efficiency V Haste I 

(8 + 26)× (1 + 0.2) = 40.8 which is greater than 1.25 × 30 = 37.5  
Efficiency III Haste II 
(8 + 10)× (1 + 0.4) = 25.2 which is greater than 0.8 × 30 = 24  
Efficiency V  8 + 26 = 34 which is greater than 1 × 30 = 30  
Efficiency IV 

8 + 17 = 25 which is greater than 0.8 × 30 = 24  
Efficiency III Haste I 

(8 + 10)× (1 + 0.2) = 21.6 which is greater than 0.6 × 30 = 18  
Efficiency II Haste I or Efficiency III 
(8 + 5)× (1 + 0.2) = 15.6 which is greater than 0.5 × 30 = 15  
Efficiency II  8 + 5 = 13 which is greater than 0.4 × 30 = 12  
Golden Pickaxe  Efficiency V Haste I 
(12 + 26)x (1 + 0.2) = 45.6 which is greater than 1.5 × 30 = 45  
Efficiency V 

12 + 26 = 38 which is greater than 1.25 × 30 = 37.5  
Efficiency II  12 + 5 = 17 which is greater than 0.5 × 30 = 15  
None  12 exactly equals to 0.4 × 30 = 12  
Diamond Axe  Efficiency V Haste II 

(8 + 26)× (1 + 0.4) = 47.6 which is greater than 1.5 × 30 = 45 
Efficiency V  8 + 26 = 34 which is greater than 1 × 30 = 30  
Efficiency IV  8 + 17 = 25 which is greater than 0.8 × 30 = 24 and 0.6 × 30 = 18  
Efficiency III  8 + 10 = 18 which is greater than 0.5 × 30 = 15  
Efficiency II  8 + 10 = 18 which is greater than 0.5 × 30 = 15  
Efficiency I  8 + 2 = 10 which is greater than 0.3 × 30 = 9  
Iron Axe  None  6 exactly equals to 0.2 × 30 = 6  
Stone Axe  None  4 is greater than 0.1 × 30 = 3  
Diamond Shovel  Efficiency IV  8 + 17 = 25 which is greater than 0.65 × 30 = 19.5 and 0.6 × 30 = 18  
Efficiency III  8 + 10 = 18 which is greater than 0.5 × 30 = 15  
None  8 is greater than 0.25 × 30 = 7.5  
Iron Shovel  None  6 exactly equals to 0.2 × 30 = 6  
Stone Shovel  None  4 is greater than 0.1 × 30 = 3  
Diamond Hoe  Efficiency V Haste II 
(8 + 26)× (1 + 0.4) = 47.6 which is greater than 1.5 × 30 = 45  
Efficiency V  8 + 26 = 34 which is greater than 1 × 30 = 30  
Efficiency IV  8 + 17 = 25 which is greater than 0.6 × 30 = 18  
Efficiency III  8 + 10 = 18 which is greater than 0.5 × 30 = 15  
Iron Hoe  None  6 exactly equals to 0.2 × 30 = 6  
Stone Hoe  None  4 is greater than 0.1 × 30 = 3  
Sword  None  hardcoded  
Shears  Efficiency V  5 + 26 = 31 which is greater than 0.8 × 30 = 24  
Efficiency II 

1.5 + 5 = 6.5 which is greater than 0.2 × 30 = 6  
None  15 is greater than 0.2 × 30 = 6  
(none)  None 

All blocks have the hardness value of 0, hence 0 × 30 = 0, and 1 is greater than 0, meaning that all blocks can be broken instantly regardless of enchantments, status effects, and breaking damage penalties. 
With the help of commands[]
Using commands, much higher levels of haste may be applied. Using these (or other mods that allow higher levels), the following blocks are instantbreakable.
Tool used, Efficiency Enchantment level and Haste Level  Blocks instantly mined  Calculation 

Diamond Pickaxe
Efficiency V Haste III 
Concrete  (8 + 26)× (1 + 0.6) = 54.4 which is greater than 1.8 × 30 = 54 
Diamond Pickaxe
Efficiency V Haste IV 
(8 + 26)× (1 + 0.8) = 61.2 which is greater than 2 × 30 = 60  
Diamond Axe
Efficiency V Haste IV 
(8 + 26)× (1 + 0.8) = 61.2 which is greater than 2 × 30 = 60  
Netherite Pickaxe
Efficiency V Haste VI 

(9 + 26)× (1 + 1.2) = 77 which is greater than 2.5 × 30 = 75 
Netherite Axe
Efficiency V Haste VI 
(9 + 26)× (1 + 1.2) = 77 which is greater than 2.5 × 30 = 75  
Netherite Pickaxe
Efficiency V Haste VII 
Blue Ice  (9 + 26)× (1 + 1.4) = 84 which is equal to 2.8 × 30 = 84 
Netherite Pickaxe
Efficiency V Haste VIII 

(9 + 26)× (1 + 1.6) = 91 which is greater than 3 × 30 = 90 
Netherite Hoe
Efficiency V Haste VIII 
(9 + 26)× (1 + 1.6) = 91 which is greater than 3 × 30 = 90  
Netherite Axe
Efficiency V Haste VIII 
(9 + 26)× (1 + 1.6) = 91 which is greater than 3 × 30 = 90  
Netherite Pickaxe
Efficiency V Haste X 
(9 + 26)× (1 + 2) = 105 which is equal to 3.5 × 30 = 105  
Diamond Pickaxe
Efficiency V Haste XV^{[1]} 
All Deepslate Ores  (8 + 26)× (1 + 3) = 136 which is greater than 4.5 × 30 = 135 
Diamond Pickaxe
Efficiency V Haste XVIII^{[2]} 
(8 + 26)× (1 + 3.6) = 156.4 which is greater than 5 × 30 = 150  
Diamond Pickaxe
Efficiency V Haste XCV^{[3]} 
Ender Chest  (8 + 26)× (1 + 19) = 680 which is greater than 22.5 × 30 = 675 
Diamond Pickaxe
Efficiency VI Haste XCV^{[4]} 
Ancient Debris  (8 + 37)× (1 + 19) = 900 which is equal to 30 × 30 = 900 
Diamond Pickaxe
Efficiency VII Haste CXXV^{[5]} 
(8 + 50)× (1 + 25) = 1508 which is greater than 50 × 30 = 1500 
Blocks unaffected by Efficiency[]
These blocks don't have an assigned tool. However, with commands, they can be instantly broken with the right level of haste. Note that the maximum level of haste is 127, but can be increased with the help of mods.
Level of Haste  Blocks instantly mined  Calculation 

Unbreakable 

All of these blocks have a hardness of 1, and 1 × 30 = 30. Since breaking starts at 1, these blocks can never be broken. 
? 

? 
Haste X  1 × (1 + 2) = 3 which is equal to 0.1 × 30 = 3  
Haste XXV  1 × (1 + 5) = 6 which is equal to 0.2 × 30 = 6  
Haste XXXIII  1 × (1 + 6.6) = 7.6 which is greater than 0.25 × 30 = 7.5  
Haste XL^{[1]}  1 × (1 + 8) = 9 which is greater than 0.3 × 30 = 9  
Haste LV^{[2]}  1 × (1 + 11) = 12 which is equal to 0.4 × 30 = 12  
Haste LXX^{[3]}  1 × (1 + 14) = 15 which is equal to 0.5 × 30 = 15  
Haste LXXXV^{[4]}  1 × (1 + 17) = 18 which is equal to 0.6 × 30 = 18  
Haste CXLV^{[5]}  1 × (1 + 29) = 30 which is equal to 1 × 30 = 30  
Haste CDXLV^{[6]}  1 × (1 + 89) = 90 which is equal to 3 × 30 = 90  
Haste DXCV^{[7]}  1 × (1 + 119) = 120 which is equal to 4 × 30 = 120  
Haste MCDXCV^{[8]} 

1 × (1 + 299) = 300 which is equal to 10 × 30 = 300 
Haste VIIICCXLV^{[9]}  1 × (1 + 1649) = 1650 which is equal to 55 × 30 = 1650 
History[]
Java Edition  

1.3.1  12w18a  The 6tick (^{3}⁄_{10} second) delay between block breaking is now removed if a block takes 1 tick or less to break in Survival. The player can now instantly mine a large amount of blocks in Survival simply by holding destroy if conditions are met.  
Before this version, blocks that can be instantly mined do break instantly, but the 6tick delay between block breaking still exists.  
12w24a  While holding a blockbreaking tool, break a block that can be instantly mined by hand no longer reduces the tool's durability.  
1.4.2  12w32a  With the addition of beacons, the haste status effect can be legitimately accessed in survival, which enables the instant mining of stone using a diamond pickaxe enchanted with Efficiency V, making the acquisition of resources and clearing out a large area/volume much easier. 