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An example of a player taking fall damage on a mobile device.

Damage represents injury from attacks or natural causes.


Main article: Health

Players and mobs have a supply of health points, which are reduced when they are injured. Each health point is "half a heart," shown as 1♥.

Players have 20♥ × 10 health points, but may vary by status effects. Mobs have varying numbers of health points, but these are not generally visible to players, with some exceptions: a player can see the health of a mount being ridden, a wolf's health is indicated by its tail angle, and in Java Edition an iron golem's body shows cracks as its health declines.


Damage from attacks or natural causes subtracts from a player or mob's current health. When their health reaches zero, they die. Players can also recover health naturally by having their hunger at least 18 (🍗 × 9) and the gamerule naturalRegeneration is set to true, or through status effects. Most mobs do not recover health except through status effects, but tamed horses, dogs, and cats can be healed by feeding them.

Armor absorbs some of the damage that would have been done to its wearer, but takes damage itself in the process.

Damage to tools and armor can be viewed in the item's tooltip by pressing the debug key combination F3 + H in Java Edition. If the player is playing on a Mac, they have to press fn + F3 + H.

Stored and displayed[]

Health and damage are stored as floating-point numbers in units of half-hearts. When displaying the HUD, fractional values are rounded up to the next integer.

Dealing damage[]

Players can deal damage by hitting most entities with targets at close (melee) range. An "unarmed" attack does 1♥ damage ‌[Java Edition only], and does 2♥ damage ‌[Bedrock Edition only], but weapons and certain tools do more:

  • Swords are crafted for this purpose. While swords do not extend attack range, they deal significantly more damage than any other item or tool except tridents and axes.‌[Java Edition only]
  • Hoes,‌[Bedrock Edition only] axes, pickaxes and shovels also deal more damage than bare fists. Axes deal the most damage, but have a slower attack speed.‌[Java Edition only]
  • Tridents can be used melee or ranged. They are a balanced weapon, but they cannot be crafted.
  • Any other item is equivalent to fists and does the same damage. This includes hoes[Java Edition only] and hitting something directly with a bow or held arrow.
  • While falling, melee attacks deal a critical hit (150% of the weapon's damage including potion effects, but before enchantments are applied, rounded down to the nearest hit point).

There are a few ranged weapons in the game:

  • Arrows are shot by holding and releasing use when wielding a bow, and deal a certain amount of damage depending on the "charge" of the bow. For crossbows, it does a random factor between 6–11.
  • Snowballs inflict damage only on blazes, while eggs don't deal any damage to mobs. Both still knock mobs back as if they had been damaged.
  • Splash potions can be thrown, inflicting various effects depending on the potion.
  • Lingering potions can be thrown, creating a cloud that inflicts various effects depending on the potion.
  • Ender pearls don't deal damage to mobs or players other than the player throwing it.
  • Fishing rods cannot be used to damage mobs directly. However, fishing rods can knock entities‌[Bedrock Edition only] back or reel them in.
  • Fireworks can be charged in a crossbow, dealing a range of damage depending on the amount of firework stars used to craft them, if the crossbow has the multishot enchantment, and a random factor. At its highest, it deals 11–18 damage per firework.

The values below show the base damage dealt per hit using various weapons. Critical hits do 50% extra damage.

Java Edition: Damage calculation starts with the weapon's base damage, then adds damage from effects, then multiplies by 1.5 if it's a critical hit, and then adds damage from enchantments.

Tool Attack speed Attack damage Damage/Second (DPS)
Sword 1.6 4♥♥ 4♥♥ 5♥♥♥ 6♥♥♥ 7♥♥♥♥ 8♥♥♥♥ 6.4 6.4 8 9.6 11.2 12.8
Trident 1.1 9♥♥♥♥♥ 9.9
Shovel 1 2.5♥ × 1.25 2.5♥ × 1.25 3.5♥ × 1.75 4.5♥ × 2.25 5.5♥ × 2.75 6.5♥ × 3.25 2.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5
Pickaxe 1.2 2♥ 2♥ 3♥♥ 4♥♥ 5♥♥♥ 6♥♥♥ 2.4 2.4 3.6 4.8 6 7.2
Axe 0.8 1 0.8 0.9 1 1 7♥♥♥♥ 7♥♥♥♥ 9♥♥♥♥♥ 9♥♥♥♥♥ 9♥♥♥♥♥ 10♥♥♥♥♥ 5.6 7 7.2 8.1 9 10
Hoe 1 1 2 3 4 4 1♥ 1 1 2 3[note 1] 4[note 1] 4[note 1]
Other 4 1♥ 4[note 1]
  1. a b c d Against a single target, DPS is effectively limited to 2 due to damage immunity.

Bedrock Edition:

Tool Attack damage
Wood Gold Stone Iron Diamond Netherite
Sword 4♥♥ 4♥♥ 5♥♥♥ 6♥♥♥ 7♥♥♥♥ 8♥♥♥♥
Trident 9♥♥♥♥♥
Shovel 2♥ 2♥ 3♥♥ 4♥♥ 5♥♥♥ 6♥♥♥
Pickaxe 2♥ 2♥ 3♥♥ 4♥♥ 5♥♥♥ 6♥♥♥
Axe 3♥♥ 3♥♥ 4♥♥ 5♥♥♥ 6♥♥♥ 7♥♥♥♥
Hoe 2♥ 2♥ 3♥♥ 4♥♥ 5♥♥♥ 6♥♥♥
Other 2♥

Attack cooldown[]

"Cooldown" redirects here. For the enchantment in Minecraft Dungeons, see MCD:Cool Down.
Information icon.svg
This feature is exclusive to Java Edition. 

Attack indicator (crosshair), empty and charged

Attack indicator (hotbar), empty and charged

When the player attacks too quickly, it reduces the strength of the attacks. The base damage done (as a fraction of the full possible damage) depends on the time between attacks, which is also reflected in the height of the held weapon on screen and the attack indicator bar (configurable in the options menu):

Item Time (seconds)
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25
Sword 20.13% 21.15% 23.20% 26.27% 30.37% 35.49% 41.63% 48.80% 56.99% 66.21% 76.45% 87.71% 100%
Trident 20.06% 20.54% 21.51% 22.96% 24.90% 27.32% 30.22% 33.61% 37.48% 41.84% 46.68% 52.00% 57.81% 64.10% 70.88% 78.14% 85.88% 94.11% 100%
Shovel 20.05% 20.45% 21.25% 22.45% 24.05% 26.05% 28.45% 31.25% 34.45% 38.05% 42.05% 46.45% 51.25% 56.45% 62.05% 68.05% 74.45% 81.25% 88.45% 96.05% 100%
Pickaxe 20.07% 20.65% 21.80% 23.53% 25.83% 28.71% 32.17% 36.20% 40.81% 45.99% 51.75% 58.09% 65.00% 72.49% 80.55% 89.19% 98.41% 100%
Axe 20.03% 20.29% 20.80% 21.57% 22.59% 23.87% 25.41% 27.20% 29.25% 31.55% 34.11% 36.93% 40.00% 43.33% 46.91% 50.75% 54.85% 59.20% 63.81% 68.67% 73.79% 79.17% 84.80% 90.69% 96.83% 100%
20.05% 20.45% 21.25% 22.45% 24.05% 26.05% 28.45% 31.25% 34.45% 38.05% 42.05% 46.45% 51.25% 56.45% 62.05% 68.05% 74.45% 81.25% 88.45% 96.05% 100%
20.04% 20.36% 21.01% 21.98% 23.28% 24.90% 26.84% 29.11% 31.70% 34.62% 37.86% 41.42% 45.31% 49.52% 54.06% 58.92% 64.10% 69.61% 75.44% 81.60% 88.08% 94.88% 100%
Hoe 20.05% 20.45% 21.25% 22.45% 24.05% 26.05% 28.45% 31.25% 34.45% 38.05% 42.05% 46.45% 51.25% 56.45% 62.05% 68.05% 74.45% 81.25% 88.45% 96.05% 100%
20.20% 21.80% 25.00% 29.80% 36.20% 44.20% 53.80% 65.00% 77.80% 92.20% 100%
20.45% 24.05% 31.25% 42.05% 56.45% 74.45% 96.05% 100%
20.80% 27.20% 40.00% 59.20% 84.80% 100%
Other 20.80% 27.20% 40.00% 59.20% 84.80% 100%

The attackSpeed attribute controls the length of the cooldown time, with the time taken being T = 20 / attackSpeed ticks. The damage multiplier is then 0.2 + ((t + 0.5) / T) ^ 2 * 0.8, restricted to the range 0.2 – 1, where t is the number of ticks since the last attack or item switch.

Damage done by enchantments (Sharpness, Smite, and Bane of Arthropods) is also reduced, but not as severely (the multiplier is not squared):

Item Time (seconds)
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25
Sword 4.00% 12.00% 20.00% 28.00% 36.00% 44.00% 52.00% 60.00% 68.00% 76.00% 84.00% 92.00% 100%
Trident 2.75% 8.25% 13.75% 19.25% 24.75% 30.25% 35.75% 41.25% 46.75% 52.25% 57.75% 63.25% 68.75% 74.25% 79.75% 85.25% 90.75% 96.25% 100%
Shovel 2.50% 7.50% 12.50% 17.50% 22.50% 27.50% 32.50% 37.50% 42.50% 47.50% 52.50% 57.50% 62.50% 67.50% 72.50% 77.50% 82.50% 87.50% 92.50% 97.50% 100%
Pickaxe 3.00% 9.00% 15.00% 21.00% 27.00% 33.00% 39.00% 45.00% 51.00% 57.00% 63.00% 69.00% 75.00% 81.00% 87.00% 93.00% 99.00% 100%
Axe 2.00% 6.00% 10.00% 14.00% 18.00% 22.00% 26.00% 30.00% 34.00% 38.00% 42.00% 46.00% 50.00% 54.00% 58.00% 62.00% 66.00% 70.00% 74.00% 78.00% 82.00% 86.00% 90.00% 94.00% 98.00% 100%
2.50% 7.50% 12.50% 17.50% 22.50% 27.50% 32.50% 37.50% 42.50% 47.50% 52.50% 57.50% 62.50% 67.50% 72.50% 77.50% 82.50% 87.50% 92.50% 97.50% 100%
2.25% 6.75% 11.25% 15.75% 20.25% 24.75% 29.25% 33.75% 38.25% 42.75% 47.25% 51.75% 56.25% 60.75% 65.25% 69.75% 74.25% 78.75% 83.25% 87.75% 92.25% 96.75% 100%
Hoe 2.50% 7.50% 12.50% 17.50% 22.50% 27.50% 32.50% 37.50% 42.50% 47.50% 52.50% 57.50% 62.50% 67.50% 72.50% 77.50% 82.50% 87.50% 92.50% 97.50% 100%
5.00% 15.00% 25.00% 35.00% 45.00% 55.00% 65.00% 75.00% 85.00% 95.00% 100%
7.50% 22.50% 37.50% 52.50% 67.50% 82.50% 97.50% 100%
10.00% 30.00% 50.00% 70.00% 90.00% 100%
Other 10.00% 30.00% 50.00% 70.00% 90.00% 100%

Critical hit[]

"Critical hit" redirects here. For the enchantment in Minecraft Dungeons, see Critical Hit.

A critical hit performed on a sheep.

A critical hit is an attack that deals extra damage compared to a regular attack. Critical melee strikes, regardless of the weapon used, cause small star particles to fly out of the target who was critically hit. Arrows shot from fully charged bows have a 25% chance of becoming "critical arrows" and dealing extra damage, but all arrows from fully charged bows leave a trail of the same small star particles as they fly through the air. Critical hits affect all damageable entities including players, mobs, paintings, boats, minecarts, and armor stands.

In melee combat, a critical hit occurs when a player attacks a mob while falling, including while coming down from a jump, but not while jumping up. The attack deals 150% of the attack's base damage (after strength is applied and before‌[JE only] / after‌[BE only] enchantments or armor are applied).

The requirements for a melee critical hit are:

  • A player must be falling.
  • A player must not be on the ground.
  • A player must not be on a ladder or any type of vine.
  • A player must not be in water.
  • A player must not be affected by blindness.
  • A player must not be affected by Slow Falling.
  • A player must not be riding an entity.
  • A player must not be faster than walking (like flying or sprinting.‌[Java Edition only])
  • A base attack must not be reduced to 84.8% damage or lower due to cooldown.‌[Java Edition only]


After sustaining damage from any source, a mob/player turns red for half a second. During this period, most other incoming damage is not counted against the player/mob's total health. For instance, if the player attacks a mob by repeatedly hitting the attack button, some attacks land during the mob's immunity period and do not deal damage. Melee weapons do not lose durability after unsuccessful attacks.

If an entity is in the immunity period and then receives higher damage (before accounting for armor, enchantments, or status effects), the difference between the original and new damage amounts is dealt. For example, if a mob is attacked with a weapon dealing 7♥♥♥♥ damage and then attacked with another weapon dealing 12♥ × 6 damage during the immunity period, the second hit deals 5♥♥♥ damage (resulting in 12♥ × 6 total). This does not reset the immunity period.

Inflicted by mobs[]

The damage mobs deal to players is affected by the difficulty of the game. The below values represent the amount of damage taken per hit.

  • This applies only to mobs attacking the player. Mobs attacking other mobs always deal the 'Normal' damage listed, regardless of difficulty.
  • Values for the creeper and ghast assume the player is directly adjacent to the explosion.
  • The damage of slimes and magma cubes depends on their size. Tiny-sized slimes, while hostile, are unable to do damage directly.
  • Mobs deal no damage to players on peaceful.
Mob Difficulty Status effect(s)ㅤㅤㅤㅤㅤㅤㅤ[edit]
Easy Normal Hard
Axolotl 2♥ No
Bee 2♥ 2♥ 3♥♥ Poison for 10 seconds on normal difficulty and for 18 seconds on hard difficulty
Blaze (melee) 4♥♥ 6♥♥♥ 9♥♥♥♥♥ No
Blaze fireball 5♥♥♥ + Fire for 5 seconds No
Cave Spider 2♥ 2♥ 3♥♥ Poison for 7 seconds on normal difficulty and for 15 seconds on hard difficulty
Creeper explosion (normal) 22.5♥ × 11.25 43♥ × 21.5 64.5♥ × 32.25 When exploding: No

If having a potion effect when exploding, it leaves an effect cloud with the effect, like a lingering potion.

Creeper explosion (charged) 43.5♥ × 21.75 85♥ × 42.5 127.5♥ × 63.75
Dolphin 2.5♥ × 1.25 3♥♥ 4.5♥ × 2.25 No
Drowned No
Drowned trident (Ranged) 8♥♥♥♥ No
Drowned trident (Melee)‌[BE only] 5♥♥♥ 9♥♥♥♥♥ 12♥ × 6 No
Elder Guardian (Laser) 5♥♥♥ 8♥♥♥♥ 12♥ × 6 Inflicts Mining Fatigue III for 5 minutes on nearby players
Elder Guardian (Spikes) 2♥ 3♥♥
Ender Dragon (Melee) 6♥♥♥ 10♥♥♥♥♥ 15♥ × 7.5 No
Ender Dragon (Wings) 3♥♥ 5♥♥♥ 7♥♥♥♥ No
Ender Dragon (Breath) 3♥♥ per second Area effect cloud of Instant Damage
Ender Dragon Dragon Fireball 6♥♥♥ per second
Enderman 4.5♥ × 2.25 7♥♥♥♥ 10.5♥ × 5.25 No
Endermite 2♥ 3♥♥ No
Evoker fangs 6♥♥♥ No
Fox 2♥ 3♥♥ No
Ghast fireball (Impact) 6♥♥♥ No
Ghast fireball (Explosion) 7♥♥♥♥ 12♥ × 6 22.5♥ × 11.25 No
Goat 1♥ 2♥ 3♥♥ No
Guardian (Laser) 4♥♥ 6♥♥♥ 9♥♥♥♥♥ No
Guardian (Spikes) 2♥ 3♥♥ No
Hoglin[JE only] 2.5♥ × 1.25 to 5♥♥♥ 3♥♥ to 8♥♥♥♥ 4.5♥ × 2.25 to 12♥ × 6 No
Hoglin (baby)‌[JE only] 0.5♥ × 0.25 0.75♥ × 0.375 No
Hoglin[BE only] 3♥♥ 6♥♥♥ 9♥♥♥♥♥ No
Husk 2.5♥ × 1.25 3♥♥ 4.5♥ × 2.25 Hunger when attacking any mob for 7 × floor of RD seconds
Illusioner arrow 2♥ to 5♥♥♥ 3♥♥ to 5♥♥♥ Throws Blindness spells on the player, if regional difficulty is 2 or greater
Iron Golem 4.75♥ × 2.375 to 11.75♥ × 5.875 7.5♥ × 3.75 to 21.5♥ × 10.75 11.25♥ × 5.625 to 32.25♥ × 16.125 No
The Killer Bunny 5♥♥♥ 8♥♥♥♥ 12♥ × 6 No
Llama spit 1♥ No
Magma Cube (big) 4♥♥ 6♥♥♥ 9♥♥♥♥♥ No
Magma Cube (medium) 3♥♥ 4♥♥ 6♥♥♥ No
Magma Cube (small) 2.5♥ × 1.25 3♥♥ 4.5♥ × 2.25 No
Panda 4♥♥ 6♥♥♥ 9♥♥♥♥♥ No
Phantom[JE only] 2♥ 3♥♥ No
Phantom[BE only] 4♥♥ 6♥♥♥ 9♥♥♥♥♥ No
Piglin arrow[JE only] 3♥♥ to 4♥♥ 4♥♥ No
Piglin arrow[BE only] 1♥ - 5♥♥♥ No
Piglin (Melee with Sword)‌[JE only] 5♥♥♥ 8♥♥♥♥ 12♥ × 6 No
Piglin (Melee without Sword)‌[JE only] 3.5♥ × 1.75 5♥♥♥ 7.5♥ × 3.75 No
Piglin[BE only] 5♥♥♥ 9♥♥♥♥♥ 13♥ × 6.5 No
Piglin Brute 7.5♥ × 3.75 13♥ × 6.5 19.5♥ × 9.75 No
Pillager arrow 3♥♥ to 4♥♥ 4♥♥ No
Polar Bear 4♥♥ 6♥♥♥ 9♥♥♥♥♥ No
Pufferfish 2♥ 3♥♥ Poison for 5 seconds
Ravager (Melee) 7♥♥♥♥ 12♥ × 6 18♥ × 9 No
Ravager (Roar) 4♥♥ 6♥♥♥ 9♥♥♥♥♥ No
Shulker bullet 4♥♥ Levitation for 10 seconds
Silverfish 1♥ No
Skeleton arrow[JE only] 3♥♥ to 5♥♥♥ No
Skeleton arrow[BE only] Damage varies with proximity No
Skeleton (melee) 2♥ 3♥♥ No
Slime (big) 3♥♥ 4♥♥ 6♥♥♥ No
Slime (medium) 2♥ 3♥♥ No
Slime (small) 0♥ No
Spider 2♥ 3♥♥ No, but can spawn with effects
Stray arrow[JE only] 3♥♥ to 5♥♥♥ Slowness for 30 seconds when their tipped arrow hits any mob (including another stray)
Stray arrow[BE only] Damage varies with proximity
Stray (melee) 2♥ 3♥♥ No
Vex 5.5♥ × 2.75 9♥♥♥♥♥ 13.5♥ × 6.75 No
Vindicator 7.5♥ × 3.75 13♥ × 6.5 19.5♥ × 9.75 No
Witch Deals damage by throwing potions Throws splash potions of Poison, Instant Damage, Slowness, and Weakness
Wither Skeleton 5♥♥♥ 8♥♥♥♥ 12♥ × 6 Wither for 10 seconds
Wither (birth explosion) 35.5♥ × 17.75 69♥ × 34.5 103.5♥ × 51.75 No
Wither Skull 8♥♥♥♥ 8♥♥♥♥ Wither II for 10 seconds on Normal difficulty and 40 seconds on Hard difficulty
Wither (dash attack)
[BE only]
15♥ × 7.5 No
Wolf (hostile) 3♥♥ 4♥♥ 6♥♥♥ No
Wolf (tamed) 4♥♥ No
Zoglin 2.5♥ × 1.25 to 5♥♥♥ 3♥♥ to 8♥♥♥♥ 4.5♥ × 2.25 to 12♥ × 6 No
Zoglin (baby) 0.5♥ × 0.25 0.75♥ × 0.375 No
Zombie 2.5♥ × 1.25 3♥♥ 4.5♥ × 2.25 No
Zombified Piglin 5♥♥♥ 8♥♥♥♥ 12♥ × 6 No
Zombie Villager 2.5♥ × 1.25 3♥♥ 4.5♥ × 2.25 No


When receiving damage from players, mobs, most projectiles, or explosions, players and mobs are also knocked back. The resulting disorientation and loss of control should not be underestimated, as it is possible to be knocked back over a cliff or into lava, both of which are potentially fatal.

A sprinting attack causes extra knockback. A thrown egg or snowball also causes knockback, despite not damaging most mobs. Entities riding another entity never receive any knockback when attacked. Iron golems, shulkers, and the ender dragon also don't receive knockback, and certain other mobs have varying levels of knockback resistance. In Java Edition, each piece of netherite armor adds 10% knockback resistance to its wearer, giving 40% knockback resistance with a full set. In Bedrock Edition, each individual piece instead has 22.5% knockback resistance, giving 90% total resistance.

Natural damage[]

Besides mob attacks, players can take damage from several other sources.

Lightning damage[]

Lightning striking on or near the player inflicts 5♥♥♥ damage, which can be reduced with armor. Natural lightning strikes on the player are rare and occur only during thunderstorms. Players and mobs that get hit by lightning are set on fire, which is quickly extinguished by the rain during a thunderstorm.

Fall damage[]

Most mobs receive damage when falling from excessive heights. Armor itself does not reduce fall damage, however the enchantments Feather Falling and Protection, and the status effects Slow Falling and Resistance do.

The Player is immune to fall damage only if the fallDamage gamerule is set to false.

Hostile mobs immune to fall damage:

Passive mobs immune to fall damage:

These mobs are partially immune to fall damage:

  • This mob takes 10♥♥♥♥♥ less fall damage:

For mobs that are subject to fall damage, the fall damage is calculated based on distance fallen rather than on velocity when hitting the ground. The distance is accumulated based on a change in position each tick and rising does not reduce the accumulator, thus an entity bouncing in mid-air on the end of a lead accumulates fatal amounts of fall distance despite never being more than a few blocks above the ground.

Fall damage is 1♥ for each block of fall distance after the third. Thus, falling 4 blocks causes 1♥ damage, 2♥ damage for 5 blocks, and so forth:

Fall damage = max(0, fall distance − 3)

While a 23 block fall should be fatal for a player at full health (23 - 3 = 20♥ × 10 of damage), due to the way fall distance is calculated, a 23.5 block fall is required instead, because the last tick of fall distance isn't added in when calculating fall damage. For certain heights, including 23-block falls, this discrepancy is enough to avoid an entire 1♥ of damage.

Therefore, without Feather Falling or relevant status effects, or immunity to fall damage, the minimum guaranteed lethal fall height for any mob is:

Fatal falling distance = health + 3.5

Falling from smaller damaging heights (4-7 blocks) plays a thud sound; larger heights (8+) give a click/cracking sound.

In some cases, it is possible to avoid falling or otherwise survive a fall.

  • Sneaking prevents the player from falling off a drop of one block or greater.
  • Entering or being in water (when not in a boat) resets fall distance. This typically includes falling into the water of any depth.
  • Being in the area of effect of cobwebs resets fall distance.
  • Being in lava reduces fall distance by half each tick.
  • Flying using elytra such that the vertical movement is upward, level or less than 0.5 blocks per tick downward resets fall distance to 1 block.
  • Moving into a ladder or vine's area of effect resets the fall damage. This also applies to trapdoors acting as a ladder.
    • Falling onto the top of a ladder does not reset fall distance and counts as hitting the ground.
    • Horses are unaffected by ladders and vines, and so their fall distance is not reset.
    • Spiders climbing a block count the block as a "ladder" for this purpose.
  • An entity riding another entity does not accumulate fall distance. However, when the ridden entity takes fall damage it damages all riders for the same fall distance.
  • A minecart's fall distance is reset when landing on rails.
  • Boats do not accumulate fall distance while in water deeper than 1 block.
  • Teleporting due to a thrown ender pearl resets fall distance, however, the teleportation itself causes 5♥♥♥ fall damage to players.
  • Wearing armor that is enchanted with Feather Falling or Protection reduces fall damage based on the level of the enchantment.
  • Having the Jump Boost status effect reduces the effective fall distance by 1 block per level, e.g. falling 5 blocks with Jump Boost II counts as having fallen only 3.
  • Slime blocks negate all fall damage, but bounce the entity into the air. This does not apply to players sneaking.
  • Hay bales and honey blocks decrease fall damage to 20% of normal.
  • Beds decrease fall damage to 50% of normal and cause the entity to bounce into the air.
  • Sweet berry bushes negate all fall damage.
  • Holding sneak while landing on at least a two-block-high stack of scaffolding negates fall damage from any height. Only 1 scaffolding block is needed to negate damage from smaller heights.
  • Slow falling status effect completely negates all fall damage but causes the entity to fall slowly.
  • Entering powder snow while falling resets fall distance.


A falling anvil deals 2♥ per block fallen after the first (e.g., an anvil that falls 4 blocks deals 6♥♥♥ damage). The damage is capped at 40♥ × 20, no matter how far the anvil falls. Wearing a helmet reduces the damage by 25%, but reduces many points of durability on the helmet.

Thorns enchantment[]

When a player or mob deals melee or projectile damage to a player or mob that is wearing Thorns-enchanted armor, part of the damage is reflected back at the attacker. The amount varies with the enchantment level. (Level * 15% chance of inflicting 1♥–4♥♥ damage, or Level - 10 damage if level is over 10) however, thorns increases the amount of durability lost per hit on the enchanted armor.


Suffocation occurs when a player or mob's eyeline is inside of certain blocks, receiving 1♥ damage every half-second.

Blocks that are transparent or do not fill an entire block do not cause damage. This includes amethyst clusters, anvils, bamboo, banners, beds, bells, brewing stands, cakes, cauldrons, chains, chests, chorus flowers, chorus plants, cocoa beans, comparators, composters, daylight detectors, dragon eggs, enchanting tables, end portal frames, ender chests, fences, fence gates, flower pots, glass, grindstones, heads, honey blocks, hoppers, iron bars, leaves, lecterns, lightning rods, extended piston heads, repeaters, saplings, slabs that are not double, stairs, stonecutters, trapdoors, and walls. Despite being fully to partially transparent, barrier blocks, beacons, ice blocks, slime blocks, and spawner blocks CAN cause suffocation. Dirt path blocks and farmland can also cause suffocation, regardless of them not being full blocks.

The player's screen displays a darkened form of the block in which the player is suffocating. When the player is in third person, the view automatically switches to the first-person view.‌[Java Edition only]

The usual ways a mob can suffocate are:

  • Sand, gravel or concrete powder falling into the space the entity occupies.
  • Riding a pig, boat, or minecart into a one-block-high space.
  • Riding a horse, llama, or strider into a two-block-high space.
  • Standing where a tree just grew from a sapling, or where a huge mushroom just grew from a mushroom.
  • Standing where an end gateway appeared after killing the dragon.
  • Having a solid block pushed into the mob's head with a piston.
  • Sleeping in a bed surrounded by blocks or having a solid block above it.‌[Bedrock Edition only]
  • Being teleported into a block or having one placed onto the entity via commands (including /setblock or /fill).
  • When playing on a distant server, sometimes broken blocks can reappear due to lag, and if the player moves where the block respawned, it can provoke suffocation (for example, chopping down a tree by moving right below the trunk).
  • When water and lava meet, and create a cobblestone, stone, or obsidian block on the entity's head.
  • Standing on a grass path, under which is sand.
  • Standing a certain distance outside of the world border, configurable with /worldborder damage buffer (default is 5 blocks).
  • Summoning an entity inside a block through spawn eggs, commands, or with a golem or wither structure lying down.
  • Standing in 2 blocks of deep water in snowy and cold biomes where the most top layer of water freezes into ice, causing both players and mobs suffocate (except for endermen, blazes, snow golems, or striders, which are damaged by water and rain).

Entity cramming[]

Information icon.svg
This feature is exclusive to Java Edition. 

In Java Edition, players and mobs take damage if too many entities are packed into the same block space. Specifically, the maxEntityCramming gamerule defines the maximum number, above which a player or mob takes 6♥♥♥ suffocation damage every half-second, as long as that player or mob is pushing greater than that number of other entities. The default max number of entities in one block space is 24. Pushable entities include players, mobs, boats, and minecarts.

If the entities exist within the area of effect of a ladder or a vine, entity collision is not calculated, and the number of entities in that block space can exceed the amount defined by maxEntityCramming. Spiders and cave spiders are still counted, however.

If a player is killed by entity cramming damage, the death message reads <player> was squished too much.


The oxygen bar.

A player who runs out of air underwater begins drowning, taking approximately 2♥ damage per second. Damage is taken when the air supply value reaches -20. Usually, the air supply value decreases each tick. It resets to 0 after damaging. Respiration gives a chance for air supply to not decrease itself per tick. Chance is x/(x + 1), where x is the level of enchantment.

Mobs can drown also, although mobs that can drown attempt to swim upward. Normally, mobs can remain underwater for 15 seconds before their air supply fully depletes. They can remain underwater for 16 seconds before actually beginning to take damage.

  • A squid, glow squid, or any kind of fish suffocates in air instead of drowning in water.
  • Dolphins can suffocate in air or drown in water and must be given access to both to survive.
  • Aquatic mobs, iron golems, skeletons, strays, zombified piglins, and zoglins are immune to drowning.
  • A zombie can drown but does not take damage; instead, it begins the process of converting to a drowned mob when continuously in water for 30 seconds.
  • Similar to a zombie, a husk does not take damage from drowning, but first converts into a zombie, which then converts to a drowned if it remains underwater.
  • A wither can drown, but it breaks blocks around it (including water) upon taking damage.

When the player is no longer submerged in water or is in a bubble column, the air supply regenerates at a rate of 1 bubble every 0.2 seconds (4 game ticks). A Respiration helmet adds an additional 15 seconds duration underwater per enchantment level, and a turtle shell adds an additional 10 seconds. Water Breathing and Conduit Power regenerate the air supply. In Bedrock Edition, both effects affect squid and fish.


When the hunger bar becomes empty (🍗🍗🍗🍗🍗🍗🍗🍗🍗🍗), the player takes 1♥ damage every four seconds. The player stops taking starvation damage when the player eats food or the health bar drops to 10♥♥♥♥♥ on Easy difficulty or 1♥ on Normal difficulty. In Hard difficulty and on Hardcore mode, the player continues taking damage, which stops upon eating something or death by starvation.

Interestingly, vexes also take starvation damage 30 to 119 seconds after having been summoned by an evoker.‌[Java Edition only]


Players and mobs take 1♥ damage every half-second when they are touching or within the same tile-space as a cactus.

Berry bush[]

Sweet berry bushes deal 1♥ damage for every half-second when a player or mob (besides foxes) is moving inside a sweet berry bush.


When mobs and players without fire immunity stand on fire, they take 2♥ damage every second and get burned. They continue burning after leaving the fire block. Fire damage can be prevented by the Fire Resistance effect. Fire duration can be decreased with the Fire Protection enchantment. Most Nether mobs are immune to fire, but they can still drown in lava.


Lava is a dangerous natural occurrence. Players and mobs (except various Nether mobs) get burned and take damage from contact with lava at a rate of 4♥♥ every half-second, and they continue burning after they leave it. Fire Resistance nullifies both the direct damage from lava and the burning damage.

Ghasts sometimes take a dive into the lava seas in the Nether, magma cubes can hop around on lava (like floating).


Players and many mobs burn when exposed to fire or lava or attacked by certain kinds of burning projectiles, Fire Aspect weapons, or burning zombies.‌[Java Edition only] In addition, armor itself does not reduce burning damage; to do so, armor needs either the Fire Protection enchantment, Protection enchantment, or the Resistance status effect. Burning obstructs the player's view slightly and, unless the player or mob has Fire Resistance, inflicts damage at a rate of 1♥ per second. This is the same rate that the player gains health in Peaceful difficulty, so burning alone cannot kill the player in this mode. Burning lasts some amount of time depending on its cause, but it is extinguished by rain, water, or cauldrons.

Except for piglins, hoglins, skeletons, and endermen, Nether mobs do not burn and cannot be damaged by fire. Burning is not considered a status effect and therefore cannot be cured by milk.

Magma block[]

Mobs without fire immunity and players take 1♥ damage every half-second if they are walking on magma blocks. This can be avoided by having the Fire Resistance effect, sneaking, or wearing Frost Walker-enchanted boots.


Players or mobs standing on top of a campfire take 1♥ damage every half second. Standing in a Soul Campfire does 2♥ damage every half second instead. Unlike any other damage sources, armor itself does not reduce campfire and soul campfire damage; to do so, armor needs either the Fire Protection enchantment, Protection enchantment, or the Resistance status effect. In Bedrock Edition, it also inflicts damage for 160 game ticks (8 seconds) after the player exits the block.

Status effects[]

Main article: Status effect

Instant damage[]

Main article: Instant Damage

Instant Damage caused by potions or tipped arrows can damage the player 6♥♥♥ at level I and 12♥ × 6 at level II. This damage occurs instantaneously. Undead mobs are instead healed, but are similarly damaged by the Healing effect. Zombified piglins that are splashed by a instant damage potion do not attack the player who threw it, as it heals them.


Main article: Poison

Cave spiders, witches and bees poison players when they attack (except on easy difficulty). Pufferfish inflict poison as defense against players or certain mobs if they are nearby. Poisoning also occurs upon eating a spider eye, poisonous potato, pufferfish, or suspicious stew made out of lily of the valley. Drinking or being hit by a potion or arrow of poison also results in poisoning. While poisoned, the hearts in the health meter turn from ♥ × 10 (♥ × 10 on Hardcore) to an olive green (♥ × 10)(♥ × 10 on Hardcore) and the player takes 1♥ every 25 ticks (1.25 seconds) on level I. See Poison for a table for higher levels. The Poison itself cannot kill the player, but it can reduce them to half a heart (♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥), thus leaving them vulnerable to damage from other sources.


Withers and wither skeletons inflict the Wither effect with their attacks (the wither skulls do not inflict the effect on easy difficulty). This darkens the health bar to ♥ × 10 on Survival and ♥ × 10 on Hardcore, while inflicting damage over time. The effect deals 1♥ every 2 seconds (40 ticks) for the wither skeleton's attack (level I), and every second for the Wither's skulls (level II). Wither roses also inflict the Wither effect to any mobs colliding it. Players also get the Wither effect after eating suspicious stew made out of wither rose or when hit by potion or arrow of decay.‌[Bedrock and Education editions only] Unlike Poison, withering can kill on any difficulty level, and the darkened health bar makes it harder to keep track of the damage, which the only way is seeing the white spark on the left of the heart.


Main article: Void

If one were to break through the bedrock barrier found at the bottom of worlds, the void can be seen. Players in the void below the Y-axis of -64‌[until JE 1.18] or -128‌[upcoming: JE 1.18] take damage at a rate of about 4♥♥ per half-second. The player usually dies from falling in the void, even in Creative or Spectator modes,‌[Java Edition only] but the player may be saved by throwing an ender pearl before falling below the Y-axis of -64. In Bedrock Edition, the player takes damage to any negative Y-axis.

Falling into the void in the End is more likely, and is the only way to access the void in Survival mode without exploiting glitches.

By using /effect to give the player Regeneration 5+ or Instant Health, they can fall infinitely into the void without dying until the effect wears off or the game crashes.‌[Java Edition only]

In Bedrock Edition, the player can survive in the void in Creative mode, but there is a one-way barrier at y= -40 ‌[until BE 1.18.0] or -104 ‌[upcoming: BE 1.18.0] to prevent falling further into the void. However, this barrier can be teleported past by teleporting the player to any location with a y value of -42 ‌[until BE 1.18.0] or -106 ‌[upcoming: BE 1.18.0] and below. The player continues falling until the player teleports away, flies back up, or crashes the game.


Main article: Explosion

Explosions cause varying amounts of damage based on the explosion strength, the entity's proximity to the explosion, and whether it is obstructed by solid blocks.

Firework rocket explosion[]

Firework rocket explosions can deal damage to entities if crafted with a firework star.

The maximum damage is 5♥♥♥–6♥♥♥ within two blocks of the explosion's center, decreasing to 1♥ at the edge of a radius of about 412 blocks.[needs testing] Each additional firework star adds 1♥—2♥ to the maximum.[needs testing]

If a rocket crafted with a firework star is used to provide a speed boost while gliding with elytra, it explodes as it is used, dealing 7♥♥♥♥ damage to the player.


Freezing hearts when the player is submerged in powder snow.

When an entity is inside a powder snow block, they begin to freeze, taking damage.

A player submerged in powder snow sees a frosty frame slowly fade in at the sides of the screen and the FOV slowly decreases. After seven seconds (140 game ticks), the player's hearts change to a cyan frosty texture (♥), and the player begins taking damage at a rate of 1♥ HP every two seconds (40 game ticks). If the player leaves the powder snow block, the vignette slowly fades away. A frozen player moves slower than usual until the vignette fully fades away. This is controlled by the "TicksFrozen" data tag, which increases by 1 every tick (to a maximum of 300) for an entity within the powder snow block. It decreases at a rate of 2 per tick after the entity leaves the powder snow block. This is currently not a separate effect when used with commands such as /effect give freezing, and does not have its own unique art, particles, or potion.

Wearing any piece of leather armor stops the freezing effect and damage. This applies to entities that can wear armor, such as zombies. Horses wearing leather horse armor also don’t take damage from freezing.

Snow golems, strays, polar bears, and withers are immune to freezing damage. Fire-related mobs like striders, magma cubes, and blazes take extra damage from freezing. A skeleton can freeze but does not take damage; instead, it begins the process of converting to a stray mob when continuously in powder snow for 7 seconds.


Icon Achievement In-game description Actual requirements (if different) Gamerscore earned Trophy type (PS4)
PS4 Other platforms
Monster HunterAttack and kill a monster.Kill a hostile mob or one of the following neutral mobs: an enderman, a piglin, a zombified piglin, a spider, or a cave spider.15GBronze
Sniper DuelKill a Skeleton with an arrow from more than 50 meters.Use a launched arrow to kill a skeleton, wither skeleton, or a stray from 50 or more blocks away, horizontally.30GBronze
OverkillDeal nine hearts of damage in a single hit.Damage can be dealt to any mob, even those that do not have nine hearts of health overall.30GBronze
The Beginning.Kill the WitherBe within a 100.9×100.9×203.5 cuboid centered on the Wither when it drops the nether star.40GSilver
ArcherKill a creeper with arrows.10GBronze


Icon Advancement In-game description Parent Actual requirements (if different) Resource location
Advancement-fancy-raw.pngReturn to Sender
Destroy a Ghast with a fireball NetherKill a ghast using a ghast fireball.nether/return_to_sender
Advancement-fancy-raw.pngUneasy Alliance
Rescue a Ghast from the Nether, bring it safely home to the Overworld... and then kill it Return to SenderKill a ghast while in the Overworld.nether/uneasy_alliance
Advancement-plain-raw.pngSpooky Scary Skeleton
Obtain a Wither Skeleton's skull A Terrible FortressHave a wither skeleton skull in your inventory.nether/get_wither_skull
Advancement-plain-raw.pngInvicon Nether Star.gifWithering Heights
Summon the Wither Spooky Scary Skeletonnether/summon_wither
Adventure, exploration, and combat Kill any entity, or be killed by any entity.adventure/root
Advancement-plain-raw.pngMonster Hunter
Kill any hostile monster AdventureKill one of these 34 mobs: Other mobs, if any, may be killed, but are ignored for this advancement.adventure/kill_a_mob
Advancement-plain-raw.pngTake Aim
Shoot something with an arrow Monster HunterUsing a bow or a crossbow, shoot an entity with an arrow, tipped arrow, or spectral arrow.adventure/shoot_arrow
Advancement-fancy-raw.pngMonsters Hunted
Kill one of every hostile monster Monster HunterKill each of these 34 mobs: Other mobs, if any, may be killed, but are ignored for this advancement.adventure/kill_all_mobs
Advancement-fancy-raw.pngSniper Duel
Kill a Skeleton from at least 50 meters away Take AimBe at least 50 blocks away horizontally when a skeleton is killed by an arrow after the player has attacked it once.adventure/sniper_duel
Advancement-plain-raw.pngThe Healing Power of Friendship!
Team up with an axolotl and win a fight The Cutest PredatorHave the Regeneration effect applied from assisting an axolotl or it killing a mob.husbandry/kill_axolotl_target


Java Edition Classic
August 18, 2009First showcased fall damage.
August 25, 2009It has been shown that the player can now hold their breath underwater for just 15 seconds.
Lava now has been shown to cause damage.
August 27, 2009Fall damage is mentioned to now be much harsher.
0.24_SURVIVAL_TESTAdded damage.
Mobs and the player now jump back when damage is taken.
Added arrows that cause damage when hitting a player.
Taking damage would cause the player's camera to tilt toward the damage source, acting as a directional damage indicator.
0.25 SURVIVAL TESTArrows deal more damage.
0.30"Missing a hit" (hitting the air) triggers a 10 tick cooldown. During this cooldown, no attack is possible.[is this the correct version?]
Java Edition Indev
0.3120100125Drowning damage has now been reduced to 1 per second. Prior to this update, drowning damage dealt by 2 per second.
Java Edition Infdev
20100617-2Added suffocation.
Java Edition Alpha
v1.0.4Players no longer suffocate when riding in a minecart in two-block-high spaces.
v1.2.3Damage now functions in multiplayer.
The directional damage tilt animation does not work properly in multiplayer, instead always tilting the camera left.
Java Edition Beta
1.5Unarmed damage was increased from 1♥ to 2♥.
1.6The 10 tick cooldown when hitting the air was removed.
July 26, 2011Notch first teased how knockback would work.
1.8Pre-releaseUnarmed damage was decreased from 2♥ to 1♥.
The Adventure Update extended the combat system with critical hits, sprinting (for knockback) and blocking.
Hunger system added: Health is no longer restored directly by eating. Instead, it recovers slowly when well-fed, but is lost if starving.
Poison added, which deals damage, until the player or mob's health is 1♥.
Hold to attack has been removed.
The swing animation no longer plays again when swinging before the animation is completed. As a result, it is impossible to do the "jittering" animation anymore.
Java Edition
1.0.0Beta 1.9 PrereleaseArmor no longer prevents certain types of damage.
Beta 1.9 Prerelease 3Sword damage was decreased (a diamond sword went from 5 hearts to 3.5 hearts damage).
Beta 1.9 Prerelease 4Enchantments added, some of which increase damage the player deals or decrease damage dealt to the player.
RC1The sound of the player taking damage was changed from a masculine oof to painful crunching sound. These were changed to remove the restriction that all avatars have a male voice, regardless of the gender of the character depicted in the skin.
1.3.112w18aAs a result of singleplayer being changed to an internal server, taking damage no longer causes the camera to tilt toward the damage source, instead always tilting left.
12w25aRemoved the downward knockback while drowning.
12w30aExplosions damage the player different amounts in different difficulties, and the player doesn't take any damage from explosions on Peaceful.
1.3.2releaseMobs no longer shove the player when moving into them.[is this the correct version?]
1.4.212w32aMobs can hold weapons, making them deal more damage. Also, the crunching noise from 1.0.0 was changed, sounding more like a slap rather than a bone-breaking punch. The fall damage noise was also changed from a crunch to a dull, thumping noise.
12w34aWither effect added, which deals damage. Unlike Poison, withering can kill players or other mobs.
1.4.3Water of any depth now completely negates all fall damage from any height.
?Critical hits no longer add a random bonus scale (+0% ~ +100% weapon damage + 2♥) but instead add +50% of the weapon damage. Enchantments no longer add a random number too; instead they add a flat number per level (1.25♥ × 0.625 for sharpness and 2.5♥ × 1.25 for other damage bonus enchantments).[is this the correct version?]
1.6.2releaseInstead of replacing the barehanded damage (1♥), swords, shovels, pickaxes and axes now add their damage onto the barehanded damage, which results in all tools doing 1♥ more damage than before.[is this the correct version?]
1.814w05aArmor no longer flashes red when damage is taken, only the player.
14w32aThe health bar has a new animation for damage that shows how many hearts are lost. (Not new, merely a revived feature that was lost after 1.2.5).
1.915w34aAdded attack cooldown.
15w34cTool damages and cooldowns adjusted.
Item Damage
Swords 5♥♥♥ 6♥♥♥ 7♥♥♥♥ 8♥♥♥♥
Axes [note 1] 4♥♥ 5♥♥♥ 6♥♥♥ 7♥♥♥♥
Pickaxes [note 1] 3♥♥ 4♥♥ 5♥♥♥ 6♥♥♥
Shovels [note 1] 2♥ 3♥♥ 4♥♥ 5♥♥♥
  1. a b c dealing damage with an axe, pick, or shovel decreases its durability by 2.
15w35aTool damages and cooldowns adjusted again.
15w47bAdded sounds for critical hits, fully-charged and not-fully-charged attacks, blocked attacks, sweep attacks, and dealing knockback.
16w02aCooldown damage reduction formula adjusted, reduction is now linear 50%–100% rather than quadratic 0%–100%.
16w05aCooldown damage reduction formula adjusted again, reduction is now quadratic 20%–100%.
1.1318w07aAdded a new weapon: tridents. These can be either thrown or used in melee combat, and deal 9♥♥♥♥♥ damage.
1.1418w43aAdded a new weapon: Crossbow.
1.1720w46aAdded a new damage type: freezing.
Entities take freezing damage when immersed in powder snow.
20w48aWearing any piece of leather armor now stops the freezing effect.
Added the freezeDamage gamerule, which stops entities from taking freezing damage if it is set to false.
21w10aFreezing in powder snow while using the "Fast" graphics setting gradually turns the player's view to black, and the vignette also appears as black in third-person view. This is most likely due to the new rendering change added in this version.
21w11aFrozen hearts now have a different texture in Hardcore mode.
21w13aBlazes, magma cubes and striders now take extra damage from freezing.
Strays, polar bears and snow golems are now immune to freezing.
Leather horse armor now grants horses immunity to freezing.
Mobs now shake when they are fully frozen.
Freeze time decreased to 7 seconds (140 game ticks) and hurt frequency to 2 seconds (40 game ticks).
Pocket Edition Alpha
v0.2.0Added Survival mode and mobs, making damage possible.
In singleplayer and for the host in multiplayer, taking damage tilts the camera toward the damage source. Joining players' cameras always tilts left, however.
?At some point, directional damage tilt broke entirely like in Java Edition, though the exact point when this happened is unknown.
v0.11.0build 1Poison added, which deals damage, until the player or mob's health is 1♥.
v0.12.1build 1Added critical hits.
Punch damage is now added to damage from swords, axes, pickaxes, and shovels.
Hunger system added: Health is no longer restored directly by eating. Instead, it recovers slowly when well-fed, but is lost if starving.
Wither effect added, which deals damage. Unlike Poison, withering can kill players or other mobs.
Mobs can hold weapons, making them deal more damage.
Enchantments added, some of which increase the damage the player deals or decrease damage dealt to the player.
?The sound of the player taking damage was changed from a masculine oof to a painful crunching sound. These were changed to remove the restriction that all avatars have a male voice, regardless of the gender of the character depicted in the skin.
build 12Critical hits now have more particles.
Bedrock Edition
1.4.0beta a new weapon: tridents. These can be either thrown or used in melee combat, and deal 9♥♥♥♥♥ damage.
1.8.0beta a new weapon: crossbow.
1.16.210beta new damage type: freezing.
Entities in powder snow now begin freezing and eventually die.
1.17.0beta, magma cubes and strays now take extra damage from freezing.
Strays, polar bears and snow golems are now immune to freezing.
Leather horse armor now grants horses immunity to freezing.
Mobs now shake when they are fully frozen.
Freeze time decreased to 7 seconds (140 game ticks) and hurt frequency to 2 seconds (40 game ticks).


  • Critical hits can be done while reflecting a ghast fireball, but does not change the damage or speed of it.
  • In Creative mode, attacking a mob while flying after having descended scores a critical hit.
  • In the Legacy Console Edition, the player can take only void damage in the End.
  • The maximum damage that can be dealt by a player in Survival is
    • Melee attack:
      • In Java Edition
        • 36.5♥ × 18.25 damage, consisting of 10♥♥♥♥♥ from a netherite axe + 6♥♥♥ from Strength II, all × 1.5♥ × 0.75 with critical, + 12.5♥ × 6.25 damage from Smite V on an undead target, or Bane of Arthropods V on an arthropod.
        • The maximum on a non-undead non-arthropod target is only 27♥ × 13.5: 10♥♥♥♥♥ from a netherite axe + 6♥♥♥ from Strength II, all × 1.5♥ × 0.75 with critical, + 3♥♥ damage from Sharpness V. A full set of Protection IV netherite armor would reduce the 27♥ × 13.5 damage to 4.6231♥ × 2.31155.[more information needed]
      • In Bedrock Edition
        • Maximum damage to undeads or arthropods is 41.25♥ × 20.625 damage, consisting of 8♥♥♥♥ from netherite sword + 12.5♥ × 6.25 from Smite V for undead mobs or Bane of Arthropods V for arthropod mobs + 7♥♥♥♥ from strength II, all x 1.5♥ × 0.75 with critical.
        • Maximum damage to non-undead and non-arthropod on land is 31.875♥ × 15.9375 damage, consisting of 8♥♥♥♥ from netherite sword + 6.25♥ × 3.125 from Sharpness V + 7♥♥♥♥ from Strength II all x 1.5♥ × 0.75 with critical.
        • Maximum damage to players and mobs on water or during rain is 42.75♥ × 21.375 damage, consisting of 9♥♥♥♥♥ of melee trident + 12.5♥ × 6.25 from Impaling V + 7♥♥♥♥ from strength II, all x 1.5♥ × 0.75 with critical. (Also work with riptide)
    • Ranged attack:
      • With Bow
        • Maximum damage to players and mobs is 25♥ × 12.5 damage from a critical shot from a bow with the power V enchantment. Because the instantaneous effects of arrows don't stack with arrow damage and apply during immunity phase, using harming (or healing arrows to undead mobs) doesn't add bonus damage unless the target has enough armor or Projectile Protection levels so the damage dealt by the arrow is lower than the magical damage effect after Protection/Resistance reduction. This is sufficient to kill most mobs in one hit though.
      • With Crossbow
        • Maximum damage to players and non-undead mobs is 64♥ × 32 damage, consisting of a single shot of three arrows of harming II from multishot enchantment that hit single mobs. Two of the arrows deal 9♥♥♥♥♥ damage while one of them deals 10♥♥♥♥♥ + 36♥ × 18 damage from instant damage II effect (12♥ × 6 per arrow).
        • Maximum damage to undead mobs is 52♥ × 26 damage, consisting of a single shot of three arrows of healing II from multishot enchantment that hit single mobs. Two of the arrows deal 9♥♥♥♥♥ damage while one of them deals 10♥♥♥♥♥ + 24♥ × 12 damage from instant health II effect (8♥♥♥♥ per arrow).
  • With all possible reductions to fall damage currently available in Survival (landing on a hay bale, Feather Falling IV boots, Protection IV on other armor pieces, and Resistance IV from a Potion of the Turtle Master) the maximum height the player can fall while surviving without Absorption is 3003 blocks. However, slow falling completely negates fall damage.
    • With the maximum absorption effect possible in Survival (IV from an enchanted golden apple), and all the effects listed above, the player can survive a fall of 5403 blocks.
    • Riding a horse along with being under the effects of a beacon's Jump Boost II further increases the total amount of blocks to a max of 9005.