Image for "Caves & Cliffs: Part I" released by Mojang Studios for
...and for Bedrock Edition.
Image for "Caves & Cliffs: Part II" released by Mojang Studios for
...and for Bedrock Edition.
Go underwater to team up with the axolotl and meet the glow squid. Tread carefully on higher ground because the goats might ram you!
minecraft.net on Caves & Cliffs: Part I
Caves & Cliffs is the name of two major themed updates for and Java Bedrock editions. The first part was released as Java Edition 1.17 and Bedrock Edition 1.17.0 on June 8, 2021, which focused on blocks and mobs. The second part was released as  Java Edition 1.18 and Bedrock Edition 1.18.0 on November 30, 2021  and brought revamped  overworld generation, including new caves and mountains.
Caves & Cliffs was announced in
Minecraft Live 2020, and on April 14, 2021,  Mojang Studios announced that the update would be split into two portions due to the amount and complexity of content, as well as team health. It was later announced in  Minecraft Live 2021 that the Deep Dark portion, as well as certain items, of the Caves & Cliffs update would be delayed until The Wild Update to improve quality.
, Part I started development with snapshot Java Edition 20w45a, which was released on November 4, 2020. The first pre-release for Caves & Cliffs: Part I was released on May 27, 2021, and the first release candidate on June 4, 2021. Part II started development with 1.18 Experimental Snapshot 1, which was released on July 13, 2021, followed by the first real snapshot on September 15, 2021, the first pre-release on November 11, 2021 and the first release candidate on November 25, 2021.
Bedrock Edition, Part I started development with beta 188.8.131.52, which was released on October 28, 2020. Most of the Part I features were behind experimental gameplay toggle until the Part I release and were not included in the full 1.16.200, 1.16.210, and 1.16.220 release.  In Part II, development continued with  beta 184.108.40.206, which was released on August 25, 2021. In 1.17.10, released on July 13, 2021, non-beta users were able to test out most of early Part II features behind experimental gameplay.
Java and "Bedrock" editions received Caves & Cliffs: Part I on June 8, 2021, and Part II is was released on November 30, 2021.
Additionally, features from Caves & Cliffs: Part I, were released for
in Education Edition 1.17.30 on November 2, 2021.
Notable features [ ]
Blocks [ ]
Amethyst Buds and Amethyst Cluster
Has variants of bushes and trees with either no blossoms or pink blossoms called
flowering azalea. Can be found in the biome.
plant that can be used for platforming. If a
player or mob stands on top of the plant for two seconds (40 ticks), the plant tilts and the player or mob falls through the plant. Can be placed on any solid block and water.
bone meal applied to grow taller. Can be used for new parkour projects and obstacle courses.
Block of Amethyst
Can be crafted with four
amethyst shards. Naturally generates in
amethyst geode structures. Makes a sparkling sound when placed or walked on.
Can be mined in amethyst geode by an iron pickaxe or better.
When it receives a
random tick, it has a 20% chance to generate or grow an amethyst bud on one of its sides. Relatively rare, generates only in amethyst geode structures.
Only obtainable in Creative Mode.
Candles and cakes with candles
light source with a light level of 3. Up to four can be placed in a single
block, similar to sea pickles. If 1 more candle is placed in a block, it increases the light level by 3, making a max light level of 12. Can be lit with a
flint and steel, fire charge, an arrow fired from a flame-enchanted bow, or a fire charge shot by a dispenser if it hits the candle. Have variants for uncolored and all 16 colors.
Uncolored candle is crafted with 1
string and 1 honeycomb. Colored candle is crafted using one of the 16 dyes and one uncolored candle. Right-clicking a candle on an uneaten cake makes a "birthday cake", which can have a single candle placed on it.
Example: If the cake is eaten, the candle pops off.
Grow on the bottom side of a
block. Grow in
. lush caves Can be planted using glow berries.
glow berries, which are a light source. Using bone meal on a cave vine produces glow berries (similar to sweet berry bushes) instead of growing the vine itself, unlike other vines.
Can be extended downward using glow berries, and has an age mechanic, similar to kelp, such that every time it ages it has a chance to grow Glow Berries.
Copper Block and variants
blocks are used for crafting and storage.
stonecutter can be used to craft the different copper block variants.
Only cut copper can be used to make stairs and slabs.
Example: Made with four copper blocks.
Cannot be turned back into regular copper blocks or copper ingots. Develops a patina of pale green copper carbonate over multiple stages, exposed, weathered, and oxidized.
Honeycombs can be used to make waxed copper, which does not progress beyond the patina stage it has at the time. The wax can be scraped off with an axe, but it does not drop the honeycomb. Axes can be used to undo the oxidisation stages one at a time.
New ore that is found underground.
Drops Raw Copper when broken, like other metal
ores. Spawns in
ore veins similar to iron (current generation is not the final version). Can be smelted into a copper ingot, which can be used to craft copper blocks,
lightning rods, and spyglasses. Does not generate below Y = 0.
Can be found below Y = 0.
Generates as base stone below Y = 0, gradually replacing
stone. Takes twice as long to mine than normal stone.
Drops cobbled deepslate when mined without the Silk Touch enchantment.
ore variants that generate in the deepslate layer (below Y = 0). Functionally similar to their normal ore variants but take twice as long to mine.
Ores that generate with deepslate variants include iron, gold, lapis lazuli, diamond, and redstone.
Ores that do not generate below Y = 0 still have deepslate variants, however these variants do not generate naturally.
Crafted with 3
copper ingots. Redirects nearby
lightning strikes to the top of the rod, which can prevent flammable structures from catching fire during thunderstorms. Emits a
redstone signal when struck by lightning, with the exception of when it gets struck by lightning from a channeling trident in a thunderstorm, in which it emits nothing. Can be oriented in different directions depending on the players orientation.
Block of Raw Iron, Block of Raw Gold, and Block of Raw Copper
block that appears grassy on all sides.
Using bone meal can cause it to grow
grass, tall grass, moss carpets and both types of azalea bushes on it and in its vicinity. Bone meal can also cause it to grow over (expand) and convert stone surfaces, sand, dirt, etc. but not grass surfaces. Breaks when pushed by a piston.
Same texture as the moss block, but one pixel thick like carpet.
Can occupy the same block with grass.
Come in two forms, stalactites and stalagmites.
Stalactites hang from the ceiling and drip
water or lava, based on what is above them. The stalactites drip water naturally without a source block above it, but these drips do not fill a cauldron.
cauldron under a stalactite slowly fills the cauldron with water or lava depending on the source block above them (enables renewable lava). If the block on which a stalactite hangs is broken, the stalactite falls, causing damage to players and mobs directly underneath. They do not take any damage if they are airborne. Stalagmites are found on the floor of the cave and deal damage if landed on.
The damage inflicted of pointed dripstone is directly proportional to the height from which the stalactite or player/mob falls from.
snow, but entities fall through it. The fall is similar to the effect of cobwebs, but faster. If the player does not have any
leather armor equipped and they walk or fall in, they start to freeze and take damage.
Freezing lowers the player's FOV (field of view), turns the
health bar blue, and puts a frosty vignette on their screen. Any leather armor prevents freezing.
Wearing leather boots allows the player to walk on top of powder snow and make it function like scaffolding. Most mobs can also take freezing damage. Polar bears, strays, and snow golems are immune to freezing. Certain mobs have unique properties with powder snow.
"Snowier snow" was announced to be part of the Mountains
biome in the biome vote at MINECON Live 2019, a joke teaser for powder snow.  Cauldrons slowly fill up with powder snow when they are placed in a snowing.biome
Part of the
Azalea plant. Resembles a dirt
block, but with the roots of the Azalea tree intertwined. The first roots that exist in Minecraft.
Planned to lead to the Lush Caves
biome. When bonemealed, hanging roots grow on the bottom block.
Appears highly varied in models.
Can be placed only in
water or on clay, which counts as a 'moist' block. Bone meal can be applied to turn it into
Big Dripleaf. Can be sold by the Wandering Trader.
Spawns as an outer covering of
amethyst geodes on the outer side of calcite, similar to real-life geodes. Very similar in texture to calcite but different in color.
Can be obtained by smelting basalt in a furnace.
Can be placed on ceilings.
particles downward when opened. Creates ambient particle effects, similar to the nether biomes, but non-biome dependent, however, its natural generation is dependent of the Lush Caves, meaning that Spore Blossoms currently don't generate naturally in default worlds.
A type of
glass that does not allow light to pass through. Crafted with a glass block in the middle and 4
amethyst shards in a cross shape. Drops itself when broken, even without Silk Touch, unlike glass.
Generates below y = 0 in the form of patches.
Items [ ]
Bucket of Axolotl
Glow Ink Sac
Powder Snow Bucket
bucket on powder snow creates a powder snow bucket. Powder snow buckets can be used to place powder snow.
Powder snow buckets can also be filled from cauldrons filled with powder snow.
Raw Iron, Raw Gold, and Raw Copper
Spawn eggs for the new mobs are added.
Crafted from an
amethyst shard and 2 copper ingots. When used while held, it allows the player to see far away objects through a small square.
By pressing F1, the player can zoom in the whole screen; avoiding the border that is normally presented when using.
Switching to third person view while using the spyglass shows the player holding up the spyglass to where the eyes would be.
Music Disc [ ] upcoming: JE 1.18
Added a new music disc from Lena Raine titled "otherside".
Can be found on rare occasions in
stronghold corridor chests, or much more rarely in dungeon chests. Has a blue and green color to the ring area of the disc.
Mobs [ ]
A Glow Squid as seen in Bedrock Edition.
Based on the
critically endangered Mexican salamander with the same name in real life. Planned to be found in bodies of water within lush caves
biomes. The first amphibian added to Minecraft.
Can be caught in a bucket like
fish. Comes in four common varieties, lucy (pink), wild (brown), gold, and cyan, and a rare blue variety, which has a
1⁄ 1200 (~0.08334%) chance of spawning. This fraction is based on the fact that there are about 1200 axolotls left in the wild.  Plays dead when damaged, receiving
This regeneration ability is likely based on how real axolotls can regrow lost limbs. Preys on
fish, glow squid and squid, and attacks drowned and guardians (doesn't include Elder Guardians) if tempted with tropical fish by a player. Prioritizes hostile mobs over fish.
mountain biomes. Can jump high to avoid obstacles, about 5 blocks tall.
mobs and players by charging and knocking them a considerable distance. Mobs attacked by goats don’t attack back.
Doesn't attack ghasts or other goats. Takes reduced fall damage.
powder snow by jumping over it. Can be bred with
wheat, which produces a baby goat. Drops one
goat horn when ramming into a block. Goat horns do not regrow. [ ] Bedrock Edition only Has a 2% chance of spawning as a screaming goat, with different sounds.
Screaming goats use their ramming attack more often than normal goats.
Drops nothing upon death.
Non-mob entities [ ]
Glow Item Frames
World generation [ ]
amethyst geode, showcasing its insides.
Large, rare, snake-like ore formations.
Copper ore veins mixed with granite generate above Y=0. Iron ore veins mixed with tuff generate below Y=0.
New mountain generation.
Height dependent generation.
Revamped, featuring some new small
spruce trees on the slopes and ice and packed ice above the peaks. Contain
goats, rabbits, snow blocks, snow layers and powder snow.
Iron ore, emerald ore and coal ore are found in abundance.
Can generate up to Y = 260.
New sub biomes. Jagged Peaks, Frozen Peaks, Snowy Slopes, Stony Peaks, Grove, and Meadow.
Now stretch down to Y = -59.
The cavern now generates in 2 layers of different stone bases depending on the depth.
Cavern layer above Y = 0 is made up of regular
stone. Stone transitions to
deepslate from Y = 0 to Y = -7. Deepslate now completely replaces stone from Y = -8 to bedrock. Biomes inside of caves introduced.
aquifers, bodies of water or lava with different heights, independent of sea level (Y=63). Improved old caves to blend in with the new generations of caves better.
 New noise caves, coming in 2 forms, cheese and spaghetti.
Cheese caves have large stone towers stretching from the bottom of the cave to the top.
Very large, often large enough to fly with an
elytra. Abundant with aquifers and ores. Spaghetti caves are long, thin caves that have small aquifers and are more similar to original caves.
Tweaked mineshaft generation, with chains and support pillars.
For support, in the air, can generate with log pillars below or chains on fence posts above.
Try to generate fully encased in stone at low y-levels.
Biomes [ ]
dripstone caves biome.
lush caves biome.
Contain cave plants and
moss. Moss covers the ceilings and floors.
Clay pools generate inside.
6 new sub-biomes added and pillager outposts can generate in all of these biomes:
Meadow Similar to the plains biome but with a colder grass color
flowers and lone oak and birch trees. Generates in plateaus and small mountains next to plains biomes
Village also can generate in this biome
Snowy Slopes Covered in snow, snow blocks and powder snow.
Goats and rabbits spawn in this biome. Igloos also can generate in this biome.
Jagged Peaks One of three mountain peak biomes that only generate if the mountain is high enough.
Generates in tall, jagged and pointy peaks.
Covered in snow, snow blocks and stone.
Only goats spawn in this biome
Frozen Peaks Generates in smoother and usually smaller peaks, but sometimes can generate in taller peaks.
Covered in snow and snow blocks with large patches
packed ice and small blobs of ice. Only goats spawn in this biome
Stony Peaks Generates in mountain peaks in regions with warmer biomes such as
savannas and jungles; It's mostly covered by stone with strips of
calcite. It doesn't generate snowy slopes or groves in the lower areas of the mountain.
No animals spawn in this biome.
Gameplay [ ]
The ore distribution changes as of and
beta 220.127.116.11. Notice the small text that reads "This is not a secret message" written on the ice at Y-64.
An action can cause vibrations in the
air, which can be picked up by sculk sensors and wardens. Can be caused by player and mob movements, blocks being placed or broken, containers opening, projectiles being fired and landing, blocks like pistons moving, buttons, levers and pressure plates activating, and blocks activating. Vibrations are not caused by ambient weather such as rain or snow. 
General [ ]
The unique textures of all the ores in Caves & Cliffs.
An example of how some stones may generate in Stony Peaks.
Terrain generation is now independent from biomes, with biomes adapting to whatever terrain they happen to generate throughout.
 This allows for natural variation in the terrain of any individual
biome, both in terms of shape and elevation.
For example, forests and deserts could form up on a hill without needing a special biome just for that purpose. This additionally allows for smoother transitions between biomes.
Terrain is now smoother and more extreme. In Stone Shore and Stony Peaks, Diorite, Granite, Calcite, Andesite, and Gravel might of spawn in layers (strips) instead of splotches.
Has been increased to 384 blocks, expanding 64 blocks up and 64 blocks down, with 320 being the limit upward and -64 being the limit downward.
Most of the overworld ores have been retextured and touched up mainly for accessibility reasons. These also apply to the new
This is a great help for color blind people that have difficulties distinguishing a certain ore of similar texture from another.
Diamond ore is an exception to this for being the "iconic" ore of the game, making Minecraft developers want to keep the classic feel of it. Ore distribution has been changed for more strategic mining.
Certain ores are more common at certain depths, and some may generate in lower quantities or not generate at that level at all.
Further revisions [ ]
Java Edition [ ]
1.17.1 made changes to some game mechanics and fixes bugs.
Bedrock Edition [ ]
1.17.1 was released exclusively on Nintendo Switch to fix a bug in which players weren't able to connect to any server.
1.17.2 was released to fix bugs related to world generation.
1.17.10 added candles, brought additional parity with , experimental features for Java Edition 1.18.0 and fixed bugs.
1.17.11 was released to fix some critical bugs.
1.17.30 was released to brought more additional parity with , new features behind the experimental toggle and fixed bugs. Java Edition
1.17.32 was released to fix some critical bugs after 1.17.30 release.
1.17.33 was released exclusively on Amazon Fire devices to fix a bug in which players weren't able to launch the game.
1.17.34 was released to fix a bug in which owned content did not appear in the inventory after redeeming a retail code.
1.17.40 was released to fix bugs and add more features behind the experimental toggle. 1.17.41 was released to fix some critical bugs after 1.17.40 release.
Videos [ ]
Trailer [ ]
A trailer for Part I was released on June 8, 2021.
A trailer for Part II was released on November 30, 2021.
Minecraft Caves & Cliffs Update: Part II - Official Trailer ( view on YouTube)
Showcases [ ]
Videos made by
Java Edition [ ]
1.17 [ ]
What's New in Minecraft 1.17 - The Caves and Cliffs Update Part I? ( view on YouTube)
Technical News in Minecraft Java Edition 1.17 - The Caves & Cliffs Update Part I ( view on YouTube)
1.18 [ ]
What's New in Minecraft 1.18 - The Caves & Cliffs Update Part II? ( view on YouTube)
Where Are The Diamonds? Ore Distribution in Minecraft 1.18 - The Caves & Cliffs Update ( view on YouTube)
Texture Updates in Minecraft 1.18 - The Caves & Cliffs Update ( view on YouTube)
Other [ ]
Caves, Cliffs & Other Updates: How We Make Minecraft - Episode 5 ( view on YouTube)
Soundtrack [ ]
Videos uploaded to
Lena Raine – Topic and Various Artists - Topic by Ingrooves
Plays in snowy slopes, jagged peaks, frozen peaks, stony peaks, and the title screen.
Plays in meadows, lush caves, and the title screen.
Not present in the game at the time of the album's release.
Plays in groves, jagged peaks, stony peaks, dripstone caves, and the title screen.
Plays in groves, dripstone caves, and the title screen.
Plays in meadows, snowy slopes, lush caves, and the title screen.
The fourteenth music disc added to the game, obtained from stronghold and dungeon chests.
Plays in jagged peaks and lush caves.
Plays in groves.
Plays in snowy slopes, dripstone caves, and lush caves.
Trivia [ ]
This is the first update:
To add a new
ore to the Overworld since emerald ore was added in 1.3.1 ( 12w21a) for and Java Edition v0.9.0 alpha for Bedrock Edition, in 2012 and 2014 respectively. To add a real-world
metal into the game since Classic 0.0.14a in 2009 for , which brought both Java Edition iron and gold, and v0.3.0 alpha in 2012 for Bedrock Edition, which brought iron, not counting copper as an Element in Education Edition. To add new shapes to cave generation since
ravines were added in Beta 1.8 for and Java Edition v0.9.0 alpha for Bedrock Edition, in 2011 and 2014 respectively. To add new types of rock to the Overworld since
andesite, diorite and granite were added in Java Edition 1.8 and Pocket Edition v0.9.0 alpha, both in 2014. To completely overhaul the terrain generation since
Java Edition 1.7.2 and Pocket Edition v0.9.0 alpha, in 2013 and 2014 respectively. To be split in
into two parts of development since the Java Edition Adventure Update in 2011, which was split into Java Edition Beta 1.8 and Java Edition 1.0. In Bedrock Edition, it is quite recent, with the last split update being Village & Pillage. To increase the world height (from 256 blocks to 384 blocks normally, with
custom world generation generation up to 2048 blocks) since Java Edition 1.2.1 in 2012. To increase the depth of the bedrock floor underground since
Java Edition Classic. To add an amphibian mob to
. Minecraft To change the light level requirement for Overworld hostile mob spawning since
Java Edition Indev. To increase the cloud height since Java Edition Beta 1.8 in 2011. Mojang Studios employees explored real caves to research for the update. This helped give inspiration and ideas for the update, including for the noodle caves (previously called mesh caves).
 The art style of the concept art for Caves & Cliffs was inspired by the concept art of Diamonds and Lemons, the Adventure Time episode featuring a Minecraft crossover.
 Archaeology was originally planned to be added in this update, but was delayed to a later version when the update was split. The deep dark biome was also originally planned to release as part of Caves & Cliffs Part II, but has now been pushed back to release alongside 1.19. 
Gallery [ ]
Caves & Cliffs release logo.
Caves & Cliffs: Part I artwork.
Caves & Cliffs: Part II artwork.
Screenshots of the Caves & Cliffs update from
Minecraft Live 2020 and other sources:
A view of the lush caves.
A player boating inside of a spaghetti cave, showcasing a subterranean water feature.
A path of glow lichen in a cave.
A large underground lake in a cheese cave.
One of the very few pictures of a mesh cave.
How the other stones may now generate.
A view of the dripstone caves.
Multiple goats, showcasing jump height.
Inside of an amethyst geode.
A copper roof house with weathered copper.
An axolotl army attacking an elder guardian.
A leaked screenshot showing "waterlogged-rail" in the title.
Concept artwork [ ]
Lush caves and its vegetation.
Stalactites and stalagmites in the dripstone caves.
"Cutie in a Bucket". Concept art of Axolotl.
"Scale of Cuteness". Concept art of the axolotl, goat, and the warden.
Amethyst geode early concept.
Another early concept for the amethyst geode.
Artwork [ ]
References [ ]
"Grab your nearest calendar and start circling with a vengeance: Caves & Cliffs: Part I arrives June 8th on both Java and Bedrock!" – @Minecraft on Twitter, May 31, 2021
"Minecraft: Caves & Cliffs Update FAQ" .
"Caves & Cliffs Update Part II is coming" – Minecraft.net, November 17, 2021
"Minecraft Live: The Recap" – Minecraft.net, October 3, 2020
"A Caves & Cliffs Announcement" – Minecraft on YouTube, April 14, 2021
"My understanding is that Experimental Features only exist in Beta releases." – @MattGartzke on Twitter, December 2, 2020
"Goats are still in the latest beta, they just can't be accessed from a full version, only betas." – @MattGartzke on Twitter, December 2, 2020
"New world generation in Bedrock available for testing" – Minecraft.net, July 13, 2021
"And yes, Glow Lichen is the new cave light source I mentioned in the cave prototype video a while back. We made them mainly for the not-yet-released larger caves. Glow Lichen generate naturally, but you can also grow it yourself and make eerie glowing cave paths :)" – @henrikkniberg on Twitter, January 20, 2021
"Once Upon a Time in the Underground (Minecraft cave prototype) @ 0:27" – Henrik Kniberg on YouTube, October 8, 2020
↑ "And speaking of snow, yes, it will be snowier. We will
also have a new block called 'powder snow'" — Vu Bui on "Minecraft Live 2020 @ 48:25" – Minecraft on YouTube
"Dev Diaries: Caves & Cliffs Mobs" – Minecraft on YouTube, May 14, 2021
"Oh forgot to mention in the changelog: we also added some more variation to the old cave carvers (width, heigh, floor cutoff, etc). Just to make them blend in a bit better with the noise caves instead of being instantly recognizable." – @henrikkniberg on Twitter, February 25, 2021
"Small interesting tidbit: We made the design decision for Sculk Sensors to not be affected by ambient weather like rain. My logic for this is "habituation", where the Sculk Sensor essentially becomes used to the constant stimulus, no longer registering it as a vibration" – @kingbdogz on Twitter, October 12, 2020
"Minecraft 1.18 experimental snapshot" – Henrik Kniberg on YouTube, June 13, 2021
"Yes, and yes. Was hoping to do a larger field trip to different countries with interesting caves, but covid got in the way so we had stay more local." – @henrikkniberg on Twitter, October 23, 2020
"Mesh caves were inspired by this field trip." – @henrikkniberg on Twitter, October 21, 2020
"I used to travel a lot in the past though (before becoming aware of climate change), and I like visiting caves, so I dug up memories from fascinating cave visits in Spain, South Africa, New Zealand, and British Virgin Isles and some other places." – @henrikkniberg on Twitter, October 23, 2020
"Definitely one of my biggest inspirations! My favorite show + favorite game - it shaped a lot how I approached concepts for Minecraft artstyle" – @cookiecat_9 on Twitter, October 4, 2020
"A Caves & Cliffs Announcement" – Minecraft on YouTube, April 14, 2021
External links [ ]