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A minecart, one method of transportation

Transportation involves the methods by which players move around the world or between dimensions (the Overworld, the Nether and the End).


NOTE: For speed measurements on any method of Transportation, all speeds are shown in SI Units. 1 m/s equals 3.2 ft/s and 1 km/h equals 0.621 MPH. It is important to remember that 1 block is 1 m3, therefore 1 m/s is equal to 1 block per second.

Method Conditions Running start? Average speed (m/s) Average speed (km/h) Works in Nether Average speed (m/s) Overworld equivalent[note 1] Average speed (km/h) Overworld equivalent
Walking Flat terrain No 4.3 15.5 Yes 34.4 124.0
Sprinting Flat terrain No 5.6 20.2 Yes 44.8 161.6
Sneaking Flat terrain No 1.3 4.7 Yes 10.4 37.6
Minecart Powered Track Yes, small 8.0 28.8 Yes 64.0 230.4
14 slope track No 7.1 25.6 Yes 56.8 204.8
Boat[note 2] 14 slope rapids Yes, small 7.3 26.4 No, no water can be placed N/A N/A
14 slope rapids No 7.0 25.2 No, no water can be placed N/A N/A
Flat ice Flat packed ice No 40.0 144.0 Yes 320 1152
Flat water No 8.0 28.8 No, no water can be placed N/A N/A
Saddled pig Flat terrain No 4.0 14.4 Yes 32.0 115.2
Flat terrain, using carrot on a stick Yes 8.0 28.8 Yes 64.0 230.4
Horse [note 3] Flat terrain No 9.675 34.83 Yes 77.4 278.6
Flat terrain, fastest possible horse breed No 14.57 52.45 Yes 116.6 419.6
Flat terrain No 7.525 27.125 Yes 60.2 217.0
Zombie horse
Skeleton horse
Flat terrain No 8.62 31.03 Yes 68.9 248.2
Swimming Still water, surface[note 4] No 2.20 7.92 No, no water can be placed N/A N/A
Still water, underwater[note 5] No 1.97 7.09 No, no water can be placed N/A N/A
Upstream, underwater No 0.39 1.40 No, no water can be placed N/A N/A
Downstream, underwater No 1.81 6.52 No, no water can be placed N/A N/A
Downstream, underwater, standing No 1.37 4.93 No, no water can be placed N/A N/A
Flying (horizontal)[note 6] Creative Mode Yes 10.9 38.9 Yes 86.4 311.2
Ender Pearl (horizontal) Thrown 15º above horizontal No ~23.0 ~82.8 Yes ~184.0 ~662.4
Elytra (0º Pitch) No obstacles Yes, small 30.0 108 Yes 240 864
  1. Certain transportation methods are also valid methods of transportation if used in the Nether. Since one block in the Nether is equal to eight blocks in the Overworld, using the Nether for transportation effectively multiplies transportation speeds by eight.
  2. The time taken by a boat to reach maximum speed is 9.4 seconds—the difference in time between a running start and not, is half that, or 4.7 seconds.
  3. Horses vary in speed. They are the fastest method of transportation on open terrain, even faster than flying in creative mode.
  4. The swimming speeds are not affected by Swiftness potions. The surface speed refers to "skimming" across the top of the water by holding the spacebar.
  5. Underwater refers to any part of the body submerged in water and walking on flat terrain. The Player travels the same speed regardless of if the water is 1 block deep or 2 (in observed cases).
  6. Flying speed can be varied.


Using potion effects (including beacon effects), walking and sprinting speeds become competitive with other methods of transportation.

Each additional level of Speed allows the player to walk at nearly the sprinting speed of the previous level, and sprinting with Speed II allows the player to keep pace with a minecart on fully powered rail. With adequate food and potion supplies, sprinting may be more cost-effective than building high-speed transportation systems.

Effect level Walking speed (m/s) Sprinting speed (m/s)
none 4.317 5.612
Speed 5.181 6.735
Speed II 6.044 7.857


Using the /effect command, extremely high or low speeds become reachable. At exceedingly high levels (100+), the player moves faster than chunks can load.

Effect level Sneaking speed (m/s) Walking speed (m/s) Sprinting speed (m/s)
Speed 50 14.25 47.49 61.74
Speed 127 34.19 113.97 148.17
Speed 256 67.61 225.36 292.96

Vertical transportation[]

There are some examples of purely vertical transportation methods:

Method Conditions Average speed (m/s)
Jumping [note 1] Climbing slope without stairs, pillar jumping, etc 2.0
Stairs Ascending 3.2
Descending 3.6
Ladder Ascending 2.35
Descending .0
Waterfall No adjacent blocks 2.0
Ascending, with adjacent blocks 0.6
Descending, with adjacent blocks 3.4
Lavafall Using a Potion of Fire Resistance 0.8
Flying Creative 7.5
Falling No blocks below player 86.7
  1. The player can jump up a distance of 1 14 blocks. With Jump Boost I, that increases to 1 1516 blocks, and with Jump Boost II, that increases to 2 12 blocks.

Falling speed is more complex: Every tick (120 second), non-flying players and mobs have their vertical speed decremented (less upward motion, more downward motion) by 0.08 blocks per tick (1.6 m/s), then multiplied by 0.98. This would produce a terminal velocity of 3.92 blocks per tick, or 78.4 m/s. However, the sky isn't quite high enough for that: Falling from layer 256 to bedrock takes about 5.5 seconds, with impact at 3.5 blocks per tick (70 m/s). (In creative mode, you can fly higher, and could potentially reach terminal velocity falling from "above the sky".)

A function to calculate the speed of a (free)falling player is the following: v(t) = (0.98t - 1) × 3.92. The velocity v is in blocks/tick (or meters/tick), and the time t is in ticks. The usual downward velocity will be negative.

Integrating the previous yields a formula to find the distance fallen by tick: d(t) = 3.92 × (99 - 49.50×(0.98t+1) - t) . Again, distance fallen is negative.

Other modes of transportation[]

  • Players are also able to use pistons for transport.
    • It is possible to construct complex flying machines using pistons, blocks of redstone, and slime blocks.
  • Dying is an instant mode of transportation that will take you to your bed or spawn point, but at the cost of all of your items and XP (if the keepInventory gamerule is disabled).
    • If the player has already defeated the ender dragon, and is near a stronghold/End portal, they can enter and exit the End to instantly be transported to their bed or spawn point without dying.
  • Standing next to an explosion will send you flying for a certain distance, depending on the strength of the explosion.
    • Not recommended in Survival mode.
  • It is possible to mount minecarts and boats as long as they are within 4-5 blocks (inclusive) from the player. Placing minecarts in a straight line allows for extremely fast transport. This also works with saddled pigs, provided they stay in position (placed on posts).


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Seecret Friday 1Added minecarts. Before this update, walking was the only form of transportation.
Seecret Friday 2Added saddles, which made it possible to use pigs as a (somewhat unreliable) method of transportation.
Seecret Friday 5Added boats.
1.1.1Added sneaking.
1.2.0Added the Nether, which could be used as a fast travel zone since any distance covered in the Nether is multiplied by 8 in the Overworld.
1.5Added powered rails, which removed the need for "booster" minecarts.
1.8Sprinting and flying were added in the Adventure Update.
Official release
1.0.0Beta 1.9-pre2Added ender pearls, which can be thrown, teleporting the player to where it lands.
Beta 1.9-pre3Speed potions added, allowing for faster travel.
1.3.112w23aBoats were made faster.
1.4.212w36aAdded carrot on a stick, which made it possible to control saddled pigs.[1] They start slow but will end up going up to 5 blocks per second (5m/sec).[2]
Before this update, the player had no control over the pig's wandering, so this was not a practical form of long-distance transportation. After this update, however, the pig did not jump when being controlled, so transportation was still limited (to the same height or downhill directions).
12w37aSaddled pigs now jump over blocks when being directed with the carrot on a stick.
12w38aTeleportation by Nether Portal is now instantaneous in creative mode.
1.6.113w16aAdded horses.
13w16bMade horses slower and reduced the amount of gliding.
1.7.213w36aAdded ability to "sprint" in minecarts, boats and horses, and while flying in Creative Mode, speeding them up slightly.
1.814w05aAdded Spectator mode, one of the fastest methods of transportation due to its no-clip ability and adjustable flying speed.
1.915w41aAdded elytra, which is currently the fastest legitimate method of transportation in the game.


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