Redstone circuit

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Mcredstonesim icon.png
This article makes use of diagrams in the MCRedstoneSim format for compactness and clarity.
Some of the designs are more than two blocks high which is represented here by the layers being frames in an animated gif or labeled side by side. A full legend is on the Redstone schematics page.

For the repeater, see Redstone Repeater.

Τα κυκλώματα Redstone είναι ένα χαρακτηριστικό που πρωτοεμφανίστηκε στην Alpha έκδοση του παιχνιδιού και επιτρέπουν στους παίκτες να δημιουργήσουν πολύπλοκους μηχανισμούς βασισμένους σε Redstone wire.

Τα κυκλώματα Redstone είναι παρόμοια με το διάσημο πρόσθετο "WireMod" για το Garry's Mod και στα ψηφιακά ηλεκτρονικά (βασισμένα στη άλγεβρα Boolean) στη πραγματικότητα. Είναι επίσης δυνατόν να χρησιμοποιήσεις πιστόνια με κυκλώματα Redstone.

Βασική Μηχανική[επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Redstone Dust[επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Το Redstone Dust δρα ως αγωγός ενέργειας. Μπορεί να δώσει ενέργεια μέχρι και 15 τουβλάκια μακριά. Για να αυξήσετε την απόσταση χρησιμοποιήστε Redstone repeaters στο κύκλωμα. Για να τοποθετήσετε Redstone Dust, κάντε δεξί κλίκ στο τουβλάκι στο οποίο θέλετε να το τοποθετήσετε, κρατώντας Redstone Dust στο χέρι. Δεν μπορείτε να τοποθετήσετε Redstone Dust σε κανένα από τα Transparent τουβλάκια.

Δίνοντας ενέργεια σε τουβλάκια[επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Κάποια τουβλάκια στο Minecraft μπορεί να έχουν ή να μην έχουν ενέργεια. Σκεφτείτε ένα τουβλάκι με ενέργεια σαν έναν οποιοδήποτε τουβλάκι ή κενό χώρο (αν δεν είναι πραγματικά κενο, το τουβλάκι Air μπορεί να πάρει ενέργεια) που έιναι αόρατα ηλεκτρισμένο αλλά ασφαλές να το αγγίξεις.

Ενέργεια μπορεί να μεταδωθεί από ένα τουβλάκι με ενέργεια σε ένα ή περισσότερα από τα έξι διπλανά τουβλάκια. Για να μεταδώσει ενέργεια ένα τουβλάκι πρέπει να είναι:

  • μια ενεργή πηγή ενέργειας (ένα redstone torch),
  • ένα τουβλάκι στο οποίο έχει τοποθετηθεί ένας διακόπτης (δηλ. το τουβλάκι κάτω από μια πλάκα πίεσης ή το τουβλάκι στο οποίο έχει τοποθετηθεί ένας μοχλός ή ένα κουμπί ,
  • το τουβλάκι μέσα στο οποίο έχει τοποθετηθεί ένας διακόπτης,
  • το τουβλάκι πάνω από ένα redstone torch ή,
  • ένας ενεργός αγωγός ενέργειας (καλώδιο redstone που είναι ακριβώς δίπλα σε ένα τουβλάκι με ενέργεια).

Προσοχή πρέπει να δοθεί στο γεγονός ότι ένα redstone torch τοποθετημένο στο πλάι ενός τούβλου χώματος είναι μέρος του τούβλου "δίπλα" στο τούβλάκι χώματος και όχι τμήμα του ίδιου του τούβλου χώματος. Παρόμοια, ένα καλώδιο redstone που έχει τοποθετηθεί πάνω σε ένα τουβλάκι χώματος είναι τμήμα του τούβλου πάνω από το χώμα. Ωστόσο, εάν το τούβλο πάνω στο οποίο έχει τοποθετηθεί καλώδιο redstone πάρει ενέργεια με οποιοδήποτε τρόπο, θα πάρει ενέργεια και το καλώδιο redstone.

Κάθε τουβλάκι με ενέργεια μεταδίδει ενέργεια σε διάφορες κατευθύνσεις, ανάλογα με το είδος του τούβλου:

  • Ένας πυρσός redstone ενεργοποιεί τον εαυτό του και το τουβλάκι ακριβώς από πάνω του, εκτός αν το τουβλάκι αυτό είναι αέρας. Λόγω του τρόπου με τον οποίο δουλεύουν τα καλώδια redstone, αυτό ενεργοποιεί επίσης και τυχόν διπλανούς αγωγούς ενέργειας (redstone wire).
  • Μία πλάκα πίεσης ενεργοποιεί το τουβλάκι μέσα στο οποίο βρίσκεται καθώς και το τουβλάκι ακριβώς από κάτω της(εκεί που έχει τοποθετηθεί).
  • Ένας μοχλός ενεργοποιεί το τουβλάκι μέσα στο οποίο βρίσκεται καθώς και το τουβλάκι στο οποίο έχει τοποθετηθεί.
  • Ένα κουμπί ενεργοποιεί το τουβλάκι μέσα στο οποίο βρίσκεται καθώς και το τουβλάκι στο οποίο έχει τοποθετηθεί.
  • Το καλώδιο Redstone ενεργοποιεί τον εαυτό του, το τουβλάκι ακριβώς από κάτω του ή το τουβλάκι προς το οποίο κατευθύνεται.

Redstone Wire and signal strength[επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Whether a block is weakly or normally (strongly) powered affects how redstone wires interact with it. Blocks are strongly powered by redstone power sources; torches (from below), repeaters, levers, pressure plates etc. If a block is powered only by redstone wire then it is weakly powered. Redstone wire which is adjacent to, on top of, or below a block that is strongly powered will become active. It will not become active if that block is weakly powered.

Powering Devices[επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

A device, such as a door, a minecart track, or a block of TNT, is activated when an adjacent block is powered. As a simple example, placing a redstone torch next to a door will change the state of the door to on. Similarly, standing on a pressure plate immediately adjacent to a door will activate the door. However, standing on a pressure plate two blocks away from a door will not activate the door, because the power does not reach the block next to or under the door.

To power devices at a distance, the power must be conducted from the active power source to the device; redstone wire is used for this purpose. As noted above, the redstone wire is part of the block it is physically located in, not the block to which it is attached. Redstone wire, or dust, has two states: on (lit) and off (unlit).

The simplest way to activate redstone wire is to put a redstone torch or switch adjacent to the wire. It also works to have a torch or switch directly above the wire, attached to a wall.

A redstone torch is itself a powered device; its default state is "on", but it will be turned off if it receives power from the block to which it is attached. This feature, along with the use of wire to transmit power in particular directions over distance, is the basis for the advanced redstone devices and circuitry below.

Care must be taken to follow the power rules precisely, or one might see unexpected results. For example, consider a pressure plate. Activating the plate will power the block underneath the plate as well as the block on which the plate resides. Nevertheless, redstone wire beneath this block will still be powered, because it is adjacent to the powered block above it. However, activating the plate will not turn off a redstone torch placed beneath the powered block -- in fact, placing a redstone torch under the block under the pressure plate will power it continuously, effectively disabling the plate.

Specific Powered Devices[επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Κάποιες συσκευές δρουν με συγκεκριμένο τρόπο, για παράδειγμα:

  • Αν ένα τουβλάκι ενεργοποιηθεί, ένας πυρσός redstone τοποθετημένος πάνω του θα απενεργοποιηθεί.
  • Αν ένα τουβλάκι ενεργοποιηθεί, μία πόρτα που βρίσκεται πάνω του ή δίπλα του θα αλλάξει κατάσταση από ανοιχτή σε κλειστή και το αντίστροφο. (The actual state will depend, because doors were implemented unintuitively.)
  • Αν ένα τουβλάκι ενεργοποιηθεί, και είναι είτε ένα note block είτε ένας dispenser, θα παίξει μία νότα ή θα εκτοξέυσει ένα αντικείμενο.
  • Αν ένα τουβλάκι ενεργοποιηθεί, και πάνω του υπάρχουν σιδηροτροχιές (ράγες), θα αλλάξουν σχήμα. (You can still have the wiring power the rail directly.)

Common Errors To Avoid[επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

The following are common errors to avoid:

  • Trying to power a block by putting activated redstone wire underneath it. Redstone wire powers blocks only horizontally at its ends. To power a block from below, use a redstone torch.
  • Trying to transmit power through a block that doesn't have any redstone wire on it. While a generic block (dirt, sand, gravel, etc) adjacent to the end of a wire can receive power, it will not transmit that power to wire on the other side, because it is not one of the blocks that can transmit power. If you have a block that you cannot move, send wire around it (including on top of it).
  • If a block has redstone wire on top and a redstone torch on the side, then the block above the torch must be either air, glass or a half-tile. If you place any solid block above the torch, it will create a feedback loop and the torch will burn out.

Logic circuit[επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

It's sometimes necessary to check signals against each other and output a signal only when the inputs meet some criteria. A circuit that performs this function is known as a logic gate (a "gate" that allows signals through only if the logic is satisfied).

In electronic or programming diagrams, logic gates are typically shown as if they were individual devices; However, when building redstone devices in Minecraft, all logic gates are formed from multiple blocks and components, which interact to produce the desired results.

Logic Gate Outputs
Shows the output (red) of each gate, for each combination of inputs A and B (green).
A ON ON off off Question Answered
B ON off ON off
NOT A off off ON ON Is A off?
A OR B ON ON ON off Is either input on?
A NOR B off off off ON Are both inputs off?
A AND B ON off off off Are both inputs on?
A NAND B off ON ON ON Is either input off?
A XOR B off ON ON off Are the inputs different?
A XNOR B ON off off ON Are the inputs the same?
A IMPLIES B ON off ON ON If A is on, is B also on?
NOT gate
A NOT gate (aka "inverter") is on if its input is off. The simplest NOT gate is an input block with a redstone torch attached.
OR gate
An OR gate is on if any of its inputs are on. The simplest OR gate is to feed multiple signals into a single block or redstone wire.
NOR gate
A NOR gate is on only if none of its inputs are on. The simplest NOR gate is to feed multiple signals into a block with a redstone torch attached.
AND gate
An AND gate is on only if all of its inputs are on.
NAND gate
A NAND gate is on if any of its inputs are off.
XOR gate
An XOR gate is on if its inputs are different.
XNOR gate
An XNOR gate is on if its inputs are equal.
IMPLY gate
An IMPLY gate is on unless the first input is on and the second input is off.

Pulse circuit[επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Some circuits require specific pulses, other circuits use pulse duration as a way to convey information. Pulse circuits manage these requirements.

A circuit that is stable in one output state and unstable in the other is known as a monostable circuit.[note 1] Many pulse circuits are monostable because their OFF state is stable, but their ON state soon reverts to OFF.

Pulse generator
A pulse generator produces a pulse of a specific duration.
Pulse limiter
A pulse limiter (aka pulse shortener) reduces the duration of pulses that are too long.
Pulse extender
A pulse extender (aka pulse sustainer, pulse lengthener) increases the duration of pulses that are too short.
Pulse multiplier
A pulse multiplier outputs multiple pulses for every input pulse (it multiplies the number of pulses).
Pulse divider
A pulse divider (aka pulse counter) outputs a signal only after a certain number of pulses have been detected through the input (the number of pulses is indicative of the number of loops).
Edge detector
An edge detector reacts to either a signal changing from OFF to ON (a "rising edge" detector), from ON to OFF (a "falling edge" detector), or both (a "dual edge" detector).
Pulse length detector
A pulse length detector reacts only to pulses in a certain range of durations (often only to pulses of one specific duration).

Clock circuit[επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

A clock circuit is a pulse generator that produces a loop of specific pulses repeatedly. Some are designed to run forever, while others can be stopped and started.

A simple clock with only two states of equal duration is named for the duration of its ON state (e.g., for example, a clock that alternates between a 5-tick ON state and a 5-tick OFF state is called a 5-clock) while others are usually named for their period (the time it takes for the clock to return to its original state; for example, a "1-minute clock" might produce a 1-tick pulse every 60 seconds).

Observer clock 1
A repeating clock made with Observers and Pistons (an Observer looking at a piston).
Observer clock 2
A repeating clock made with two Observers facing each other.
Repeater clock
A repeater clock consists of a loop of repeaters (usually either redstone repeaters or redstone torches) with occasional dust or blocks to draw off the appropriate pulses.
Hopper clock
A hopper clock produces timed pulses by moving items around between hoppers and drawing signals off with redstone comparators.
Piston clock
A piston clock produces a loop of pulses by passing a block back and forth (or around, with many pistons) and drawing off a pulse when the block is in a certain location.
Comparator clock
The clock of short or moderate cycle length utilizing comparator's subtraction or signal fading feature. Clocks can also be built using daylight sensors, minecarts, boats, water flow, item despawn, etc.

Memory circuit[επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Unlike a logic circuit whose state always reflects its current inputs, a memory circuit's output depends not on the current state of its inputs, but on the history of its inputs. This allows a memory circuit to "remember" what state it should be in, until told to remember something else. There are five basic types of memory circuits. (A few circuits combine two different types.)

RS latch
An RS latch has two inputs, one to set the output on and another to reset the output back to off. An RS latch built from NOR gates is known as an "RS NOR latch", which is the oldest and most common memory circuit in Minecraft.
T flip-flop
A T flip-flop is used to toggle a signal (like a lever). It has one input, which toggles the output between on and off.
Gated D latch
A gated D latch has a "data" input and a "clock" input. When the clock input turns on, it sets the output to equal its data input. Not to be confused with a D flip-flop, which sets the output equal to its data input on a clock rising transition.
JK latch
A JK latch has two inputs, one to set the output on and another to reset the output back to off (like an RS latch), but when both turn on simultaneously it toggles the output between on and off (like a T flip-flop).
Unlike T flip-flops and RS latches, which can hold two states (ON or OFF), a counter can be designed to hold a greater number of states.

Many other memory circuits are possible.

Miscellaneous circuits[επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

These circuits aren't generally needed for redstone projects, but might find use in complex projects, proofs of concept, and thought experiments. Some examples:

Multiplexers and relays
A multiplexer is an advanced form of logic gate that chooses which of two inputs to let through as output based on an additional input (for example, if input A is ON then output input B, otherwise output input C). The reverse of this is a relay, which copies a data input to one of two outputs, depending on whether the additional input is ON or OFF.
A randomizer produces output signals unpredictably. Randomizers can be designed to produce a pulse at random intervals, or to randomize which of multiple outputs are turned ON (such as random number generators, or RNGs). Some randomizers use the random nature of Minecraft (such as cactus growth or dispenser slot selection), while others produce pseudo-randomness algorithmically.
Multi-bit circuits
Multi-bit circuits treat their input lines as a single multi-bit value (something other than zero and one) and perform an operation on them all at once. With such circuits, possibly combined with arrays of memory circuits, it's possible to build calculators, digital clocks, and even basic computers inside Minecraft.
Block update detectors
A block update detector (BUD, or BUD switch) is a circuit that reacts to a block changing its state (for example, stone being mined, water changing to ice, a pumpkin growing next to a pumpkin stem, etc.). BUDs react by producing a pulse, while T-BUDs (toggleable BUDs) react by toggling their output state. These are generally based on subtle quirks or glitches in device behavior; current circuits most often depend on pistons. As of Java Edition 1.11, many of the functions of BUDs were condensed into the observer, however, a BUD circuit can also detect other changes undetectable by observers, like a furnace finishing smelting or something being crafted in a crafting table. The addition of this was made to move toward feature parity with Bedrock Edition versions.

Many other complex circuits are possible.

See also: Tutorials/Advanced redstone circuits

Video[επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

References[επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

  1. Note: Some players refer to edge detectors as monostable circuits