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A river bisecting a jungle biome. At the top right is a forest.

A river running through a mesa biome with mesa plateaus, with a savanna biome in the bottom right.

Jeb twitter.jpg In case you don’t know what a “biome” is, it’s a climate zone used in the game to set what kind of surface the ground has (sand? grass?), whether it should rain or snow, what trees grow there, and sometimes also what kind of animals that are allowed to spawn there.
Jens Bergensten [1]

Biomes are regions in a Minecraft world with varying geographical features, flora, heights, temperatures, humidity ratings, and sky and foliage colors. Biomes separate every generated world into different environments, such as forests, jungles, deserts, and taigas.


Biomes have a temperature value that determines if it snows, rains, or does not have either. The required values are less than 0.15 for snow, 0.15 - 0.95 for rain, or greater than 1.0 for neither. These values can be used to determine the heights that snow generates in different biomes. The temperature also drops 0.00166667 per meter above sea level (Y=64). For example, extreme hills generate snow at Y=95, due to highland climate, as the base value is 0.2, and savannas do not experience rain or snow due to their heat.

Biomes are split into 5 categories based on their temperature: snow-covered, cold, medium, dry/warm, and neutral. They were separated to prevent biomes with huge temperature differences being placed side-by-side (such as cold taiga next to a desert), and to allow biomes with similar temperatures to be placed next to each other more often. (Such as forest and swampland)

Biome types[]

There are 38 main biomes in the Overworld (with two being unused), one in The Nether, one in The End and 23 technical biomes, bringing the total number to 63 distinct biomes. Biomes can be distinguished by the grass and leaf colors in the biome, along with the types of blocks present (e.g. types of trees or other plants like cacti, sand coverage in deserts). Biomes are pseudo-randomly generated using the map seed.

Biomes are separated into 5 categories. The snow-covered biomes are marked in blue, cold in green, medium/lush in orange and dry/warm in red. The biomes which are not labeled are either neutral or unknown. Temperatures are given at sea level.

Snowy biomes[]

In these biomes, it snows at any height. The foliage and grass is a dark aqua-green.

Biome ID Name and Features Description Images

Ice Plains

Temperature: 0.0

Snow, Snowfall, Oak Trees, Ice, Spruce Trees, Igloos, Strays, White and some Black & White Rabbits, Polar Bears, Occasional Tall Grass

A somewhat rare but expansive, flat biome with a huge amount of snow. All sources of water exposed to the sky are frozen over. Sugar cane will generate in this biome, but can become uprooted when chunks load as the water sources freeze to ice. There are very few natural oak and spruce trees in this biome. It has a lower chance of spawning passive mobs during world generation than other biomes (7% versus 10%), however it is one of the few biomes where Polar bears and Strays spawn. Due to the biome's size, snow and ice cover, and scarcity of wood and animals, initial survival becomes difficult in comparison to other biomes.
Snowy Plains.png

Ice Plains Spikes

Temperature: 0.0

Packed Ice, Snow, Snow Blocks, Strays, White and some Black & White Rabbits, Polar Bears, Ice Spikes

A rare variation of the Ice Plains biome that features large spikes of packed ice, as well as packed ice 'lakes'. Usually the spikes are 10 to 20 blocks tall, but some long, thin spikes can reach over 50 blocks in height. All grass blocks in this biome are replaced with blocks of snow. It has a lower chance of spawning passive mobs during world generation than other biomes (7% versus 10%).
Ice Plains Spikes.png

Cold Taiga

Temperature: -0.5

Snow, Snowfall, Ice, Spruce Trees, Flowers, Wolves, White and some Black & White Rabbits, Igloos

A snowy variation of the taiga biome, where ferns(and large ferns) and spruce trees grow. It is one of the few places where wolves will naturally spawn.
Snowy Taiga.png

Cold Taiga M

Temperature: -0.5

Spruce Trees, Snow, Snowfall, Ferns, Wolves, White and some Black & White Rabbits

Large, mountainous version of the snowy taiga.
Snowy Taiga Mountains.png

Frozen River

Temperature: 0.0

Ice, Water, Sand, Clay

This variant of river only generates in ice plains biomes. The surface layer of water is frozen.
Frozen River.png

Cold Beach

Temperature: 0.05

Sand, Snow, Snowfall, Ice

A beach with snowy weather conditions. Often found when the Ice Plain biome borders an ocean biome.
Snowy Beach.png

Cold biomes[]

In these biomes, it begins to snow over a certain height, but before the 256 block height limit. Otherwise, it rains. The foliage and grass is an aqua-green.

Biome ID Name and Features Description Images

Extreme Hills

Temperature: 0.2

Oak Trees, Spruce Trees, Gravel Flowers, Emerald Ore, Monster Egg, Llamas

A highland biome (with some mountaintops reaching y=130 or even higher) with a few scattered oak and spruce trees. Cliffs, peaks, valleys, waterfalls, overhangs, floating islands, caverns, and many other structures exist, offering outstanding views. This is one of the few biomes where llamas spawn naturally. Snowfall also occurs above certain heights, thus creating "snow caps" on the top of the mountains. Falling is a significant risk, as there are many steep ledges large enough to cause severe fall damage or even death. Extreme hills are the only biomes where emerald ores and silverfish can be found naturally.

Extreme Hills M

Temperature: 0.2

Spruce Trees, Oak Trees, Gravel, Snow

Variant of the regular extreme hills biome that features higher mountain peaks, most of which reach into the clouds. Mountains here are composed mainly of gravel and a little bit of dirt and grass, with a sparse population of spruce and oak trees.
Gravelly Mountains.png

Extreme Hills+

Temperature: 0.2

Stone, Dirt, Spruce Trees, Oak Trees

A variant of the regular extreme hills biome, adding larger mountains, steeper cliffs, and a moderate amount of spruce trees and scattered oak trees.
Wooded Mountains.png

Extreme Hills+ M

Temperature: 0.2

Spruce Trees, Oak Trees, Gravel, Grass

A rare variant of the extreme hills+ biome where huge gravel mountains appear, with sparse oak and spruce trees and small patches of grass.
Extreme Hills - M = Big.png


Temperature: 0.25

Spruce Trees, Flowers, Fern, Wolves, Brown, salt & pepper and black rabbits, Villages[Computer and Pocket editions]

A biome densely filled with spruce trees, ferns and large ferns. Wolves tend to spawn here fairly commonly. Taiga.png

Taiga M

Temperature: 0.25

Spruce Trees, Flowers, Ferns, Sheep, Brown, salt & pepper and black rabbits

Mountainous version of the regular taiga biome.
Taiga M.png

Mega Taiga

Temperature: 0.3

Spruce Trees, Podzol, Ferns, Wolves, Brown, salt & pepper and black rabbits, Moss Stone, Mushrooms, Dirt, Coarse Dirt, Dead Bush

Mega taiga is an uncommon biome composed of spruce trees, much like the standard taiga biome. However, some trees are 2×2 thick and very tall, not unlike large jungle trees. Moss stone boulders appear frequently, brown mushrooms are common and podzol can be found along the forest floor. There are also patches of coarse dirt, which will not grow grass. Wolves may also spawn here, as they do in normal taiga biomes.
Giant Tree Taiga.png

Mega Spruce Taiga

Temperature: 0.25

Spruce Trees, Podzol, Ferns, Grass, Moss Stone, Mushrooms, Dirt

A variation of the mega taiga. In this biome there is a much higher density of smaller spruce trees. Also, the tall trees look very similar to regular spruce trees, as opposed to the short-topped trees in the normal mega taiga biome.
Mega Spruce Taiga.png

Stone Beach

Temperature: 0.2

Stone, Gravel, Water

This stone-covered biome often appears adjacent to mountains and the ocean. Depending on the height of the nearby land, it can generate medium slopes or huge cliffs.
Stone Shore.png

The End

Temperature: 0.5

End Stone, Endermen, Obsidian, End Crystals, the Ender Dragon, Chorus Plants, End Cities, Shulkers, Purpur Block, End Stone Bricks

This biome is used to generate the End. The ender dragon, and large amounts of endermen, spawn in this biome. Most of the End's structure is provided by the dimension itself rather than the biome. It does not rain or snow in this biome unlike the other low temperature biomes. The outer islands in the End can be accessed using the End gateway portal after the ender dragon has been defeated. These contain endermen, chorus plants and End cities. End cites are the only place where shulkers naturally spawn .If the biome is used for a superflat world, the sky will be dark gray and an ender dragon will spawn at 0,0 coordinates in the Overworld. Only endermen will spawn at night.

The End.pngEnd Highlands.png

Medium/Lush biomes[]

In these biomes, it begins snowing over the 256 blocks height limit. Otherwise, it rains. The foliage and grass is a vibrant light green, except swamps and roofed forests, which have a dark green grass. Rivers are also exempt from this, as they have a dull blue hue.

Biome ID Name and Features Description Images


Temperature: 0.8

Tall Grass, Grass, Flowers, NPC Villages, Horses, Donkeys, Oak Trees

A relatively flat and grassy biome with rolling hills and few trees. Gullies, water holes, and NPC villages are common. Cave openings and water or lava springs are easily identifiable due to the flat unobstructed terrain. Passive mobs spawn often in plains biomes; this biome and its variants are also one of the only biomes where horses spawn naturally. Plains.png

Sunflower Plains

Temperature: 0.8

Grass, Sunflowers, Horses, Oak Trees

A rare variation of the plains biome, where sunflowers naturally spawn in abundance. Sunflower Plains.png


Temperature: 0.7

Oak and Birch Trees, Flowers, Wolves, Mushrooms

A biome with a lot of oak and birch trees, occasional hills, and a fair amount of tall grass. Mushrooms and flowers can occasionally be found here. This is one of the most preferred biomes to start out in, due to the abundance of wood. However, the frequency of trees also makes it dangerous to navigate at night, due to obscured vision. Forest biomes are also one of the smallest biomes. Forest.png

Flower Forest

Temperature: 0.7

Flowers, Trees, Brown, salt & pepper and black rabbits

A variant of the forest biome that has fewer trees but has a huge amount of various flowers. There are certain flowers that are exclusive to the flower forest. Flower Forest.png

Birch Forest

Temperature: 0.6

Birch Trees, Flowers

A forest made solely out of birch trees. Birch Forest.png

Birch Forest M

Temperature: 0.6

Tall Birch Trees, Flowers

A variation of the birch forest biome which features taller birch trees than usual. Tall Birch Forest.png

Roofed Forest

Temperature: 0.7

Dark Oak Trees, Huge Mushrooms, Mushrooms, Rose Bushes Woodland Mansions

This biome is composed of dark oak trees, a mostly closed roof of leaves, and occasional large mushrooms. Trees in this forest are so plentiful and so close together, that at some spots it may become dark enough for hostile mobs to spawn, even during the day. Rarely, a woodland mansion may spawn.[Computer edition only] Dark Forest.png

Roofed Forest M

Temperature: 0.7

Dark Oak Trees, Huge Mushrooms Woodland Mansions

A mountainous version of the roofed forest biome, with steep cliffs lining the edge. Dark Forest Hills.png


Temperature: 0.8

Witch Huts, Oak Trees, Grass, Vines, Lily Pads, Clay, Mushrooms, Slimes, Huge Mushrooms[Pocket edition only], Fossils

A biome characterized by a mix of flat, dry areas around sea level and shallow pools of brackish green water with floating lily pads. Clay, sand, and dirt are commonly found at the bottom of these pools. Trees are often covered with dark green vines, and can be found growing out from the water. Mushrooms and sugar canes are very abundant; huge mushrooms will spawn in this biome[Pocket edition only]. Witch huts generate exclusively in swamps. Slimes will also spawn naturally at night, most commonly on full moons, making this an especially dangerous biome at night. Temperature varies randomly within the biome, not affected by altitude, causing foliage and grass colors to vary. The water is dark gray instead of blue[Pocket edition only]. Swamp.png

Swampland M

Temperature: 0.8

Swamp Trees, Vines, Lilypads, Water, Witches, Fossils

A slightly hillier swampland with greener grass. Witch huts do not generate in this biome, unlike the normal swampland biome. Swamp Hills.png


Temperature: 0.95

Jungle Trees, Jungle Temples, Ferns, Flowers, Vines, Ocelots, Cocoa Pods, Melons

A very dense, but rather uncommon tropical biome. It features large jungle trees that can reach up to 31 blocks tall with 2×2 thick trunks. Oak trees are also common. The landscape is lush green and quite hilly, with many small lakes of water often nestled into deep valleys, sometimes above sea level. Leaves cover much of the forest floor—these "bush trees" have single-blocks of jungle wood for trunks, surrounded by oak leaves. When inside a jungle, the sky will become noticeably lighter. Vines are found alongside most blocks and may cover the surface of caves. Ocelots, jungle temples, melons, and cocoa plants can be found exclusively in this biome. Melons generate in small patches, similar to pumpkins. Jungle.png

Jungle M

Temperature: 0.95

Jungle Trees, Jungle Temples, Ferns, Flowers, Vines, Ocelots, Cocoa Pods, Melons

Much more mountainous version of the normal jungle, with foliage so thick that the ground is barely visible. A very resource-demanding biome. Due to the hilly nature of the terrain in this biome, and the height of the tall jungle trees, trees frequently reach into and go above the clouds. Extremely dense foliage and treacherous hilly terrain make this a very difficult biome to navigate, especially at night. Niceviewjungle.png

Jungle Edge

Temperature: 0.95

Jungle Trees, Ferns, Melons, Flowers, Vines, Ocelots

A very rare biome that only generates at the border of a jungle biome and any other biome. Similar to a jungle but with much fewer and smaller trees, and relatively flat terrain. Jungle Edge.png

Jungle Edge M

Temperature: 0.95

Jungle Trees, Oak Trees, Grass, Flowers, Vines,Melons

One of the rarest biomes in the game[2][3]. A slightly more mountainous variation of the jungle edge biome, which only generates on the border of a jungle M and another biome. There are very few to no tall trees in this relatively tiny biome. Jungle Edge M.png


Temperature: 0.5

Water, Sand, Clay

A biome that consists of water blocks that form an elongated, curving shape similar to a real river. Unlike real rivers, however, they have no current. Rivers cut through terrain or separate the main biomes. They attempt to join up with ocean on the other side, but will sometimes loop around to the same area of ocean. Rarely, they can have no connection to the ocean and form a circle. They have a dull green grass hue, much like the ocean, and trace amounts of oak trees tend to generate there as well. Rivers are also a reliable source of clay. These biomes are good for fishing. River (With Correct Grass Hue).png


Temperature: 0.8

Sand, Gravel, Water

Generated on the shores of oceans, beaches are composed of sand. Beaches penetrate the landscape, removing the original blocks and placing in sand blocks. Some beaches generate with gravel instead of sand. These are also useful for fishing. For the history of beaches, see the Beach page. Beach.png

Mushroom Island

Temperature: 0.9

Mushrooms, Huge Mushrooms, Mycelium, Mooshrooms, No Hostile Mobs

This rare biome consists of a mixture of flat landscape and steep hills and has mycelium instead of grass as its surface. However, if you do place down grass, it is a very bright green color, not unlike that of the jungle. Mushroom islands are most often adjacent to an ocean and are often found isolated from other biomes. It is one of the only biomes where huge mushrooms can generate naturally, and where mushrooms can grow in full sunlight.

Technically no mobs other than mooshrooms spawn naturally in this biome, including the usual night-time hostile mobs. This also applies to caves, abandoned mine shafts, and other dark structures, meaning exploring underground is supposedly safe. However, mob spawners will still spawn mobs, and the player will also still be able to breed animals and spawn mobs using eggs.

Mushroom Fields.png

Mushroom Island Shore

Temperature: 0.9

Mushrooms, Huge Mushrooms, Mycelium, Mooshrooms, No Hostile Mobs

Mushroom shores represent the flat shore area of the mushroom biome. Mushroom Field Shore.png

Dry/Warm biomes[]

In these biomes, it neither rains nor snows at all, but the sky will still turn overcast during inclement weather. The foliage and grass is an olive color, except mesa biomes, which have brown grass.

Biome ID Name and Features Description Images


Temperature: 2.0

Sand, Cacti, Dead Bushes, Sandstone, Sugar Cane, Desert wells, Desert Temples, NPC Villages, Gold Rabbits, Fossils

A barren and relatively inhospitable biome consisting mostly of sand dunes, dead bushes, and cacti. Sandstone is commonly found underneath the sand. The only passive mobs to spawn naturally in deserts are gold rabbits, their coloring well-camouflaged against the sand. Sugar cane can be found if the desert is next to an ocean or river biome. The lack of visual obstruction makes mobs highly visible at night. Desert villages, desert wells and desert temples are found exclusively in this biome. This biome sometimes appear as edge of mesa biome.

Desert M

Temperature: 2.0

Sand, Cacti, Water, Sugar Canes, Gold Rabbits, Fossils

Unlike in normal deserts, patches of water can be found in this biome.
Desert Lakes.png


Temperature: 1.2

Acacia Trees, Tall Grass, NPC Villages, Horses, Cows, Sheep, Llamas

A relatively flat and dry biome with a dry grass color and scattered acacia trees. Villages can generate in this biome, and it is the only biome where both horses and llamas spawn naturally.

Savanna M

Temperature: 1.2

Acacia Trees, Tall Grass

Variant of the savanna biome. Dirt paths and giant mountains are prevalent in this biome. However, this biome is unique in that its mountains can generate past the clouds, and even to the world height limit, without using the AMPLIFIED world type.
Shattered Savanna.png


Temperature: 2.0

Dead Bushes, Hardened Clay, 6 colors of Stained Clay, Red Sand, Cacti, Red Sandstone, Above ground mineshafts, Gold ore

A rare biome consisting of hardened clay, stained clay, and dead bushes – similar to a desert. Red sand will also generate here instead of regular sand, with occasional cacti. Its composition is useful when other sources of clay are scarce. However, finding mesa biomes can be difficult due to their rarity. On the other hand, it offers great variety - there are a total of 6 variations of this biome to explore.

Mesas can contain above ground abandoned mineshafts. They also allow gold ore to generate near surface levels, rather than just at layer 32 and below.


Mesa (Bryce)

Temperature: 2.0

Red Sand, Cacti, Red Sandstone, Dead Bushes, Hardened Clay, 6 colors of Stained Clay

Mesa (Bryce) is a variant of the mesa biome, featuring a low desert-like ground area with tall, thin, spire-shaped columns of hardened clay, similar to the structures in the real Bryce Canyon.
Eroded Badlands.png

Mesa Plateau F

Temperature: 2.0

Oak trees, Dead Bushes, Dirt, Hardened Clay, 6 colors of Stained Clay

A rare variation of the mesa plateau, where small forests of dry oak trees and grass generate at the top of the plateaus.
Wooded Badlands Plateau.png

Mesa Plateau F M

Temperature: 2.0

Oak trees, Dead Bushes, Dirt, Hardened Clay, 6 colors of Stained Clay

Very rare variant of the Mesa Plateau F biome. Features steeper cliffs than the normal Mesa Plateau F biome, with a reduced occurrence of trees and smaller, more erratic hills.
Modified Wooded Badlands Plateau.png
36, 39


Temperature: Same as their respective base biomes.

Like the hills biomes, but flattened at the top, coming to rest at about 20 to 30 blocks above sea level. Only generates in savanna and mesa biomes.
Badlands Plateau.png Savanna Plateau.png
164, 167

Plateau M

Temperature: Same as their respective base biomes.

Similar variant of the plateau biomes, which are themselves a variant. The mesa plateau M biome features slightly flatter terrain and smaller plateaus in general, compared to the average mesa plateau biome. On the contrary, the savanna plateau M biome features incredibly large and steep cliffs that jut violently out of the terrain, compared to the regular savanna plateau; these cliffs generally exceed cloud height, sometimes above y=200, and sometimes even border the world height limit.
Modified Badlands Plateau.png Shattered Savanna Plateau.png

Hell (The Nether)

Magma Cubes, Netherrack, Glowstone, Soul Sand, Nether Brick, Gravel, Nether Quartz, Ghasts, Blazes, Skeletons, Zombie Pigmen, Nether Fortresses, Wither Skeletons, Nether Wart, Lava, Endermen, Magma Blocks

This is the biome used to generate the Nether. In a Superflat world using this biome, the Overworld will contain only Nether mobs (ghasts, packs of zombie pigmen and occasional magma cubes) and won't receive rain, but it won't have Nether structures (such as Nether quartz or glowstone veins or Nether fortresses), and it can still have water lakes and mineshafts, beds will also explode in this biome, even when in the Overworld.

The Nether.png

Neutral and other biomes[]

These biomes are usually covered with water and have very little land exposed. Either that, or they have many variants of themselves which are also variants of other non-neutral biomes.

Biome ID Name and Features Description Images
0 Ocean

Temperature: 0.5

Water, Gravel, Squid

A large, open biome made entirely of water going up to y=63, with underwater relief on the sea floor, such as small mountains and plains, usually including gravel. Oceans typically extend under 3,000 blocks in any direction, around 60% of the Overworld's surface is covered in Ocean. Small islands with infrequent vegetation can be found in oceans. Passive mobs are unable to spawn on these islands, but hostiles can. Cavern entrances can be found infrequently at the bottom of the ocean. In the Console versions, they surround the edges of the map.

Deep Ocean

Temperature: 0.5

Water, Gravel, Clay, Squid, Guardians, Elder Guardians, Ocean monuments

A variation of the Ocean biome. In deep ocean biomes, the ocean can exceed 30 blocks in depth, making it twice as deep as the normal ocean. In contrast to default oceans, the ground is mainly covered with gravel. Ocean monuments generate in deep oceans, which spawn guardians.
Deep Ocean.png
13, 17, 18, 19, 22, 28, 31, 33, 156, 161


Temperature: Same as their respective base biomes.

Hills are generated within certain biomes (including some of their variants) and are referred in the F3 menu with Hills or Mountains added to their name.

This includes: Forest Hills, Taiga Hills, Cold Taiga Hills, Jungle Hills, Desert Hills, Birch Forest Hills (M), Mega Taiga Hills, Redwood Taiga Hills, and Ice Mountains.

Ice Mountains are usually taller, with height comparable to Extreme Hills biomes, and has a lower chance of spawning passive mobs during world generation than other biomes (7% versus 10%).

ColdTaigaHills.pngGiant Tree Taiga Hills.pngForest Hills Biome.pngJungle Hills.pngDesert Hills.png

Unused biomes[]

These biomes don't generate in default worlds, but they can be accessed by using the Customized world type.

Biome ID Name and Features Description Images

Plains M

Temperature: 0.8

Tall Grass, Grass, Flowers, Horses

A variant of the Plains biome with occasional water patches and slightly hillier terrain. 1.8 Biomes Grassland.png


Temperature: 0.0

Ice, Water, Gravel, Squid

A variant of the ocean biome that is completely frozen over. However, warmer rivers occasionally run through it.
Frozen Ocean.png

Extreme Hills Edge

Temperature: 0.2

Grass, Dirt, Stone, Pigs, Sheep, Cows, Wolves, Spruce trees, Oak trees, Snow (occasionally)

Similar to the jungle edge sub-biome, this sub-biome generates exclusively at the edge of extreme hills biomes (or any variant). Mountain Edge.png

Other biomes[]

Biome ID Name and Features Description Images

The Void

Temperature: 0.0

Stone, Cobblestone

A completely empty biome that generates only a single structure: a 33×33 stone platform with a single block of cobblestone in the center. Can only be accessed through The Void superflat preset, or through Customized worlds. The Void Below.png

Biome IDs[]

Each type of biome has its own biome number, shown in the following table. These biome numbers are used when creating a customized superflat world. Main biomes have an ID number from 0 to 39, while biome variations normally have an ID number of 128 + <original biome number>. Three biomes, FrozenOcean (10), Extreme Hills Edge (20) and Plains M (128) are no longer naturally generated.

Number Biome Name
(Alternative Name)
Color /
Variation Color
Variation Name
0 Ocean 000070 N/A N/A
1 Plains 8DB360 N/A (128) Plains M
B5DB88 129 Sunflower Plains
2 Desert FA9418 FFBC40 130 Desert M
3 Extreme Hills 606060 888888 131 Extreme Hills M
4 Forest 056621 6A7425 132 Flower Forest
5 Taiga 0B6659 596651 133 Taiga M
6 Swampland 07F9B2 2FFFDA 134 Swampland M
7 River 0000FF N/A N/A
8 Hell FF0000 N/A N/A
9 The End (Sky) 8080FF N/A N/A
(10) FrozenOcean 9090A0 N/A N/A
11 FrozenRiver A0A0FF N/A N/A
12 Ice Plains FFFFFF B4DCDC 140 Ice Plains Spikes
13 Ice Mountains A0A0A0 N/A N/A
14 MushroomIsland FF00FF N/A N/A
15 MushroomIslandShore A000FF N/A N/A
16 Beach FADE55 N/A N/A
17 DesertHills D25F12 N/A N/A
18 ForestHills 22551C N/A N/A
19 TaigaHills 163933 N/A N/A
(20) Extreme Hills Edge 72789A N/A N/A
21 Jungle 537B09 7BA331 149 Jungle M
22 JungleHills 2C4205 N/A N/A
23 JungleEdge 628B17 8AB33F 151 JungleEdge M
24 Deep Ocean 000030 N/A N/A
25 Stone Beach A2A284 N/A N/A
26 Cold Beach FAF0C0 N/A N/A
27 Birch Forest 307444 589C6C 155 Birch Forest M
28 Birch Forest Hills 1F5F32 47875A 156 Birch Forest Hills M
29 Roofed Forest 40511A 687942 157 Roofed Forest M
30 Cold Taiga 31554A 597D72 158 Cold Taiga M
31 Cold Taiga Hills 243F36 N/A N/A
32 Mega Taiga 596651 6B5F4C 160 Mega Spruce Taiga
33 Mega Taiga Hills 545F3E 6D7766 161 Redwood Taiga Hills M
34 Extreme Hills+ 507050 789878 162 Extreme Hills+ M
35 Savanna BDB25F E5DA87 163 Savanna M
36 Savanna Plateau A79D64 CFC58C 164 Savanna Plateau M
37 Mesa D94515 FF6D3D 165 Mesa (Bryce)
38 Mesa Plateau F B09765 D8BF8D 166 Mesa Plateau F M
39 Mesa Plateau CA8C65 F2B48D 167 Mesa Plateau M
127 The Void N/A N/A N/A

Technical details[]



The temperature and rainfall values of the biome are used to change the colors of grass, foliage, and (for swamplands) water.

A biome's rainfall value is typically a value from 0.0 to 1.0. A biome's temperature starts at a given value at sea level, Y=64, and goes down by 0.00166667 per meter increase. Starting values range from 2.0 (e.g., Desert) to -0.5 (e.g., Cold Taiga). The temperature does not increase below sea level.

The temperature and rainfall values are used to access two texture images in Minecraft, grass.png and foliage.png, in \assets\minecraft\textures\colormap. These textures are triangular, only the lower left is used, despite the upper right of the foliage file having colors. The adjusted temperature and adjusted rainfall values are used to access these two triangles. Treating the lower left corner as temperature = 1.0 and rainfall = 0.0, with adjusted temperature decreasing to 0.0 at the right edge and adjusted rainfall increasing to 1.0 at the top edge, the values used to retrieve the colors are computed as follows:

AdjTemp = clamp( Temperature, 0.0, 1.0 )

AdjRainfall = clamp( Rainfall, 0.0, 1.0 ) * AdjTemp

"clamp" limits the range of the temperature and rainfall to 0.0-1.0. The clamped rainfall value is then multiplied by the 0.0-1.0 adjusted temperature value, which brings its value to be inside the lower left triangle. Some biomes' ranges are shown on the right; the multiplication makes all the line segments point towards the lower right corner.

The color for grass block top and sides, along with various forms of grass – specifically tall grass, ferns, double tall grass, and large ferns – is modified by the color retrieved from the grass.png image. The color for various tree foliage - all tree types except spruce and birch, which have fixed colors in the code – is modified by the color retrieved from foliage.png.

At borders between or among biomes, the colors of the block and its eight neighbors are computed and the average is used for the final block color.

Exact temperature and rainfall values for biomes can be found in various projects, e.g. this biome code.

Swampland color[]

Swamplands are special. Temperature, which starts at 0.8, is not affected by altitude. Rather, a Perlin noise function is used to gradually vary the temperature of the swampland. When this temperature goes below -0.1, a lush green color is used, 0x4C763C, otherwise it is set to a sickly brown, 0x6A7039. In addition, the color of the water in swamplands is always multiplied by a greenish tinge, 0xE0FFAE. These colors are locked in the code and not retrievable from any texture.

Roofed forest color[]

The roofed forest biomes' grass color is retrieved normally, then averaged with a dark green color, 0x28340A, to produce the final color.

Mesa color[]

All mesa biomes' grass and foliage have hardwired colors, two tan colors, 0x90814D and 0x9E814D respectively. These are not modifiable by grass.png and foliage.png and unaffected by temperature.


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1.0.4Added Winter Mode. Maps now have a snowy or grassy theme randomly determined when creating the world.
1.2.0Added biomes; they were rain forest, seasonal forest, forest, shrubland, taiga, tundra, savanna, plains, swampland, desert, and frozen desert.
World saves remained unchanged, other than a change in the hue of the grass. If the player moves into ungenerated chunks, the new biomes would generate.
1.6Added the Sky Dimension with its own biome. It could only be viewed through the use of mods and hacks.
1.8 Biomes got an overhaul, removing some biomes, such as the tundra and the taiga, and others replaced with nine fractal-based biomes that were a mix of the previous biomes and new biomes. See here for more details.
Official release
1.0.0Re-added tundra (as ice plains) and added Mushroom Islands.
1.1Re-added snow in taigas, added hills and beaches.
Smoothed color transitions between biomes – swampland grass, foliage and water smoothly transition into other biomes.
1.2.112w03aAdded jungle biome.
12w07aThe Anvil file format was introduced and it allows for biomes to be stored in the world data. In contrast, the Region file format relies on the seed to dynamically calculate biome placement. This would cause biome placement in older worlds to change when the biome generation code was changed. With the current Anvil format, the biome data is stored along with the rest of the world data, meaning it will not change after the world is generated and can be edited by third-party map-editing tools. Furthermore, "edge" biomes allow for biomes to continue extend beyond the edge chunks of an old world. This allows for smooth transitions in world generation after the generation code changes in an update.
1.3.1Hills in forests and deserts are taller.
1.6.113w17aWater lakes no longer generate in deserts.
1.7.2August 2, 2013Jens Bergensten tweeted the first image of the mesa biome. He jokingly referred to them as "disco mountains."
August 7, 2013Jens tweeted the first image of a mega taiga, unofficially dubbed the Redwood Forest. The name was changed following 1.7's release.
August 9, 2013Jens tweeted the first image of a stone beach, which was then referred to as a "cliff" biome.
13w36aMesa, mega taiga, roofed forest, birch forest, savanna, extreme hills+, deep ocean and snowless taiga biomes were added as well as variations for many of the biomes. Biomes were also separated by temperature, and snowing was added to extreme hills.
Biomes will attempt to avoid getting placed next to a biome that is too different from itself, temperature-wise.
The frozen ocean and extreme hills edge biomes no longer generate naturally.
Biome-hopping achievement "Adventuring Time" added, but it was broken until 1.8 making the goal of getting all achievements impossible in 1.7.
13w39aRed sand now generates in mesa biomes and their variants.
13w43aSavannas and roofed forest biomes now generate with new logs and leaves.
1.814w17aThe End's biome name is now "The End" instead of "Sky".
Adventuring Time is now available without commands. Before, the 38 biomes had to be visited without visiting any other biomes, which made the achievement unavailable because the End has to be visited for its prerequisite, The End?. The “no other biomes” restriction is now lifted.
Visiting the frozen ocean and extreme hills edge biomes, which no longer generate since 13w36a, is no longer required for Adventuring Time.
14w26aChanged generation of marsh-like areas in swamp biomes.
14w32aRed sandstone now generates below red sand in mesa biomes and their variants.
1.915w37aAdd new biome "The Void", which is used in Superflat preset "The Void".
1.1016w20aPlains and sunflower plains now have some trees (5% of chunks). 13 large oaks, 23 normal oaks.
Ice plains, ice plains spikes and ice mountains now have a lower chance of spawning passive mobs during world generation than other biomes (7% versus 10%).
In mesa biomes, hardened clay and stained clay no longer generate more than 15 blocks deep, if the mesa is more than 15 blocks above sea level. In addition to the normal 2 veins of gold ore below Y=32, now attempts to generate 20 veins at elevations between 32 and 79. Also can generate dark oak abandoned mineshafts above ground.
Pocket Edition Alpha
0.9.0build 1All biomes as of PC version 1.7.2 have been added. These include: Jungles, mesa, plains, roofed forests, savannas, taiga, extreme hills, mushroom islands, flower forest, mega taiga, mega spruce taiga, swampland, desert, forests, and deep ocean.
0.9.5Added bryce mesa, extreme hills +, and jungle M.
0.10.0build 1Mesa biomes have gold at every elevation and can generate mine shafts on the surface.
Water in swamps is tinted dark gray.
Huge mushrooms generate in swamps
0.11.0build 1Added birch forest M, birch forest hills M, extreme hills M, and extreme hills+ M.
build 8Changed the default biome.
build 10Increased the amount of gravel on extreme hills M biome.
0.12.1build 1Added Nether biome.
build 10Leaves coloring shaders are now only used when the color for a biome actually changes.
0.16.0The biomes can now be viewed on maps based on the grass color.
Pocket Edition
Console Edition
TU5CU11.00Patch 1Added swampland, ice plains, extreme hills and ocean biomes
Removed rain forest, seasonal forest, savanna, shrubland and taiga.
TU7Re-added tundra (as ice plains) and added Mushroom Islands.
TU9Re-added beaches and snow in taigas, added hills.
Smoothed color transitions between biomes – swampland grass, foliage and water smoothly transition into other biomes.
TU12Added jungle biome
TU141.04Hills in forests and deserts are taller.
TU19CU71.12Water lakes no longer generate in deserts.
TU31CU191.22Patch 3Added mesa, mega taiga, roofed forest, birch forest, forest, savanna, extreme hills+, deep ocean, snowless taiga and 20 technical biomes.
Changed generation of marsh-like areas in swamp and extreme hills biomes.

A very old image of biomes work-in-progress. "To the right of the player is a taiga, to the left is either a forest, or woods, I can’t remember. In the distance is probably tundra." ~ Notch


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  • Interestingly, the hilly version of "Mega Spruce Taiga" is called "Redwood Taiga Hills M," rather than "Mega Spruce Taiga Hills".
  • The term biome is analogous to its scientific usage: in real life, a biome is climatically and geographically defined by distinctive communities of plants, animals and soil organisms supported by similar climatic conditions. They are often referred to as ecosystems.[4][5]
  • The only fictional biomes are the Nether (Hell), The End and those with huge mushrooms. All the others are entirely or almost entirely based on real-life counterparts.


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